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Clarithromycin administered late in experimental urosepsis by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa prolonged survival and ameliorated clinical findings. Its effect is probably attributed to immunomodulatory intervention on blood monocytes.
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Helicobacter pylori gastritis may progress to glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, conditions that predispose to gastric cancer. Profound suppression of gastric acid is associated with increased severity of H pylori gastritis. This prospective randomised study aimed to investigate whether H pylori eradication can influence gastritis and its sequelae during long term omeprazole therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD).
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Fourteen patients have been included. Mean age +/- SD was 42 +/- 11 years, 41% males, peptic ulcer (57%), functional dyspepsia (43%). All patients took all the medications and completed the study protocol. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication was achieved in 11/14 patients (79%; 95% confidence interval = 49-95%). Adverse effects were reported in five patients (36%), and included: abdominal pain (three patients), nausea and vomiting (one patient), and oral candidiasis (one patient); no patient abandoned the treatment due to adverse effects.
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To compare the results of culture and epsilometer test with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of Helicobacter pylori and the presence of clarithromycin-susceptible and clarithromycin-resistant strains in antral biopsies from children.
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Pharmacodynamic studies of Helicobacter pylori exposed to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, omeprazole, and lansoprazole were performed with microscopy, viable count determination, and bioluminescence assay of intracellular ATP. The pharmacodynamic parameters determined were change in morphology, change in cell density, postantibiotic effect (PAE), and control-related effective regrowth time (CERT). The PAE is delayed regrowth after brief exposure to antibiotics or acid pump inhibitors. CERT was defined as the time required for the bacteria to resume logarithmic growth and return to the pre-exposure inoculum in the test culture minus the corresponding time for the control culture. CERT measures the combined effect of initial killing and PAE. There was a good concordance between the bioluminescence assay and viable counts for determining CERT, which makes this parameter useful for pharmacodynamic studies of the effects of antibiotics and acid pump inhibitors on H. pylori. Amoxicillin and metronidazole produced a strong, concentration-dependent initial decrease in CFU per milliliter, but there was a less prominent initial change in intracellular ATP in these cultures. Amoxicillin caused a long PAE when assayed by the bioluminescence assay but no PAE or a negative PAE when assayed by viable count determination. However, amoxicillin showed similar long CERTs with both methods. The pharmacodynamic effects of amoxicillin were concentration dependent up to a maximum response, indicating that concentrations above this level do not increase the antibiotic effect. The PAEs and CERTs of clarithromycin and metronidazole were concentration dependent with no maximum response. With omeprazole and lanzoprazole, there was no PAE or CERT.
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Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of faropenem were determined in 78 Japanese clinical H. pylori isolates using the agar dilution method. H. pylori-positive patients were consecutively assigned to a 7-day eradication therapy protocol with LAF (lansoprazole 60 mg/day, amoxicillin 2000 mg/day, and faropenem 600 mg/day), and then to a 14-day protocol. The outcomes of the therapies were assessed by (13)C-urea breath tests.
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T-3811, the free base of T-3811ME (BMS-284756), a new des-F(6)-quinolone, showed a potent in vitro activity (MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested are inhibited [MIC(90)], 0.0313 microg/ml) against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The MIC(90) of T-3811 was 4-fold higher than that of clarithromycin but was 4- to 8-fold lower than those of trovafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, and moxifloxacin and was 16- to 32-fold lower than those of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline. In an experimental M. pneumoniae pneumonia model in hamsters, after the administration of T-3811ME (20 mg/kg of body weight as T-3811, once daily, orally) for 5 days, the reduction of viable cells of M. pneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was greater than those of trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, and clarithromycin (20 and 40 mg/kg, orally) (P < 0.05).
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TMP/SMX remains a useful agent in prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine is the most effective combination in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis.
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Overexpression of YKL-40 was only found in carotid atherosclerosis group with CagA-positive helicobacter pylori infection; C-reaction protein failed to distinguish different infectious statuses of helicobacter pylori infection. In patients with CagA-positive helicobacter pylori infection, elevated YKL-40 expression was accompanied by more severe clinical symptoms. We also confirmed similar findings in rabbit model of carotid atherosclerosis with CagA-positive helicobacter pylori infection. We found that in 7 rabbits treated with anti-helicobacter pylori therapy, the serum YKL-40 level decreased and the plaque became more stable.