A 61-year-old woman fell ill with recurrent nausea, loss of appetite and tiredness. Five days later she noted increasing jaundice of skin and sclerae, pale stools and dark urine, and she developed itching over the whole body. Among biochemical tests alkaline phosphatase (537 U/l) and bilirubin (32.0 mg/dl) were markedly increased, while both GOT (102 U/l) and GPT (39 U/l) were only slightly elevated. Ultrasonography was normal and extrahepatic cholestasis appeared unlikely on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Cholestasis due to virus hepatitis was also excluded. It was only on repeated and direct questioning that the patient reported having taken three tablets daily of Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) for 12 days 5 weeks before the onset of symptoms.
amocla 625 mg
In an attempt to investigate the possibility of re-establishing the use of penicillins in the treatment of gonorrhoea in Singapore, a series of studies were conducted between 1981 and 1984, to evaluate the efficacy of a variety of penicillin-clavulanic acid combinations. A total of 6 different regimens were evaluated, and we concluded that 3 regimens consisting of 2 doses of Augmentin 3.25 g P.O., 4 hours apart (regimen C), aqueous procaine penicillin G (APPG) 4.5 mega units I.M. + Augmentin 375 mg + probenecid 1g P.O. (regimen E), and APPG 4.5 mega units I.M. + Augmentin 750 mg + probenecid 1g P.O. (regimen F) were very efficacious against infection due to PPNG and non PPNG. The cure rates obtained were 96.6% (regimens C and E), and 95% (regimen F) for infection due to PPNG and 95.6% (regimen C), and 100% (regimens E and F) for those due to non PPNG. Regimen E consisting of aqueous procaine penicillin G 4.5 meg units I.M. + Augmentin 375 mg + probenecid 1g P.O. was felt to be economical as well as effective against PPNG and non PPNG, and had the potential advantage of being effective against incubating syphillis. Regimen consisting 2 oral doses of Augmentin 3.25 g, 4 hours apart was an effective therapy for patients who preferred oral medication alone. However, this therapy was most costly. No serious side effects of treatment were observed with any of the regimens used.
17,244 pathogens isolated from clinical specimens of 24 hospitals in the Moers area (North-Rhine Westphalia, FRG) were tested in regard to their susceptibility to Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). For this purpose, minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by use of microbroth dilution technique. 80% of Gram-negative, 98% of Gram-positive and 97% of anaerobic isolates were susceptible to Augmentin (breakpoint 4 mg/l amoxicillin in the presence of 2.5 mg/l clavulanic acid). In a second part of the study the susceptibility to Augmentin of 4.137 Gram-negative and 10.958 Gram-positive pathogens was compared to their sensitivity against benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin, mezlocillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, ampicillin, cefaclor and doxycyclin.
amocla 625mg dosage
Out of the 320 questionnaires distributed, a total of 281 students completed and returned the questionnaires. Among these, 115 (41%) respondents admitted to have used at least one antibiotic in the six months prior to the survey, 44% of whom did not seek medical advice (irrational self-medication). The most common antimicrobial drugs used for self-medication were amoxicillin (37%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (33%), ciprofloxacin and penicillin (14%) and the most frequently reported reasons for self-medication were respiratory and oral infections (31%), common cold (25%), and genitourinary infections (20%). Some students mentioned the use of more than one antimicrobial drug, for more than one disease.
amocla duo syrup
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) frequently has a delayed onset with several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes affecting susceptibility, indicating a potential role for the adaptive immune system in the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether drug-responsive T lymphocytes are detectable in patients who developed DILI with the combination, antimicrobial amoxicillin-clavulanate. Lymphocytes from 6 of 7 patients were found to proliferate and/or secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) when cultured with amoxicillin and/or clavulanic acid. Amoxicillin (n = 105) and clavulanic acid (n = 16) responsive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell clones expressing CCR, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4, CCR9, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 were generated from patients with and without HLA risk alleles; no cross-reactivity was observed between the two drug antigens. Amoxicillin clones were found to secrete a heterogeneous panel of mediators, including IFN-γ, interleukin-22 and cytolytic molecules. In contrast, cytokine secretion by the clavulanic acid clones was more restricted. CD4(+) and CD8(+) clones were major histocompatability complex class II and I restricted, respectively, with the drug antigen being presented to CD4(+) clones in the context of HLA-DR molecules. Several pieces of evidence indicate that the clones were activated by a hapten mechanism: First, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) were required for optimal activation; second, pulsing APCs for 4-16 hours activated the clones; and third, inhibition of processing abrogated the proliferative response and cytokine release.
amocla 625 mg antibiotic
We evaluated the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae resistance to selected antimicrobials used in Canada. From 1985 to 1987, 2503 H. influenzae isolates obtained in 14 hospitals across Canada were sent to the Centre hospitalier de l'université Laval (CHUL) for identification, serotyping, biotyping and testing for beta-lactamase production. Susceptibility tests were done with the use of 12 antibiotics. Of the strains 424 (16.9%) produced beta-lactamase; the proportion varied from 12.8%, in Newfoundland, to 19.6%, in Ontario. Of the strains 18.3% were type b; 19.4% of those produced beta-lactamase. Almost 82% of the strains were not type b. The proportion of beta-lactamase-producing strains varied according to the isolation site, from 15.3% in the respiratory tract to 25.6% in the blood. The overall level of resistance was 19.3% to ampicillin, 24.2% to erythromycin, 3.8% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 1.7% to amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate, 1.4% to cefaclor, 1.3% to tetracycline, 1.0% to rifampin, 0.7% to cefuroxime and 0.1% to cefamandole. Disc diffusion susceptibility testing revealed 64 strains (2.6%) that did not produce beta-lactamase but were resistant to ampicillin and 9 (0.4%) that produced beta-lactamase but were susceptible to ampicillin. The results of beta-lactamase production tests were identical regardless of whether the tests were done by the CHUL or by the other hospitals, but there was a marked difference in the susceptibility test results between the CHUL and the other centres. Our results suggest that the level of resistance of H. influenzae to antibiotics is increasing in Canada and that the initial choice of drug therapy may have to be modified.
amocla 625mg antibiotic
Agranulocytosis is a rare complication of ticlopidine and can be life-threatening. We report a case of ticlopidine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia (neutrophil count of 0.1 x 10(9)/L) with necrotizing gingivitis in a 54-year-old Malaysian-Chinese female. She was started on ticlopidine 250 mg twice daily 3 weeks prior to this hospital admission. We started her on intravenous metronidazole and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin) and concurrently stopped ticlopidine. A series of clinical and laboratory investigations were carried out and a final diagnosis of necrotizing gingivitis possibly secondary to agranulocytosis was made. The patient was discharged home after 2 weeks of hospitalisation.
Bacteria were initially shown in 67 (89%) children. New bacteria appeared in MEF more often in placebo than in amoxicillin clavulanate recipients [9 of 38 (24%) versus 2 of 37 (5%); P = 0.032]. During the follow-up, new occurrences of Moraxella catarrhalis were detected in MEF more frequently than those of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae. Of the 28 patients with bilateral otorrhea, 11 (39%) had disparate bacteria at study entry and/or during the follow-up.
The primary outcome measure was incidence of gastric cancer during follow-up, compared between H pylori eradication and placebo groups. The secondary outcome measure was incidence of gastric cancer in patients with or without precancerous lesions, compared between the 2 groups.
This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was conducted in a group of 177 subjects, from which 3 groups were formed. The first group (n = 62) received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, the second group (n = 56) received a 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combination, and the third group (n = 59) received 0.09% sterile saline solution. All patients were recalled for the diagnosis of alveolar osteitis on the third and seventh postoperative days.
amocla neo syrup
The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between a 5-day and a 1-day postoperative course of antibiotic on the incidence of infection after mandibular fractures involving the alveolus. Sixty-two patients with fractures of the mandible involving the dentoalveolar region were randomly assigned to 2 groups, both of which were given amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 1.2 g intravenously every 8 h from admission until 24 h postoperatively. The 5-day group were then given amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 625 mg orally every 8 h for another 4 days. The 1-day group was given an oral placebo at the same intervals. Follow-up appointments were 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. Development of an infection was the primary end point. Fifty-nine of the 62 patients completed this study. Six of the 30 patients in the 5-day group (20%) and 6 out of the 29 in the 1-day group (21%) developed local wound infections. Three of the 6 in the 1-day group developed purulent discharge and swelling. One patient in the 5-day group developed a rash on the trunk. There were no significant differences in the incidence of infection or side effects between the groups. In fractures of the mandible involving the alveolus, a 1-day postoperative course of antibiotic is as effective in preventing infective complications as a 5-day regimen.
Oral treatment of groups of four mice with different daily dosages of three related antibiotics, amoxycillin, augmentin and bacampicillin, has indicated the influence of the amount of the dose that reaches the intestine in a biologically active form. Augmentin (amoxycillin plus clavulanic acid to protect it against enzymatic hydrolysis) appeared to have a suppressive effect on the indigenous colonization-resistance-associated microflora. Dose-effect curves of amoxycillin alone, showed the same shape but at a lower level. Bacampicillin treatment practically did not have an effect on the faecal flora. Only at doses of bacampicillin of well above 1.5 mg per day, an indication was seen of CR-flora disturbance. At a dose level of 2 mg and more per day, a low concentration of beta-aspartylglycine was found in the faeces. A normal undisturbed intestinal flora normally produces in mice sufficient enzyme to degrade completely this dipeptide released by the host organism into the intestinal tract.