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Ultra-short-term prophylaxis with both amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefazolin is safe in elective laparotomic gynecologic surgery.
To compare the clinical efficacy of gatifloxacin with amoxicillin/clavulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media treatment failure and recurrent otitis media.
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To compare the infective complications between two different antibiotic regimens used as prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP Bx).
To investigate the bactericidal activity, against Haemophilus influenzae strains exhibiting different resistance phenotypes, of simulated serum concentrations obtained in humans after administration of 400 mg of cefditoren twice daily, 500 mg of cefuroxime twice daily, 875/125 mg of co-amoxiclav twice daily or 875/125 mg of co-amoxiclav three times daily.
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The susceptibility patterns of 35 Shigella isolates (16 S. flexneri, 14 S. dysenteriae and 5 S. sonnei) to trimethoprim (Tp) and various antibiotics including amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, were investigated. Twenty-two (62.8%) strains were resistant to Tp with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) value of 512 mg/L. Only six isolates were amoxycillin resistant, to which clavulanic acid restored sensitivity in all of them. None of the isolates were resistant either to extended spectrum cephalosporins or to quinolones. Resistance to Tp was transferred from 7 of the 22 isolates (31.8%) to the recipient Escherichia coli K12. Tp MIC values of the transconjugants were 512 mg/L. In no strain could amoxycillin resistance be transferred. Our results indicate that as the prevalence of transferable Tp resistance in Shigella isolates in Izmir is substantially high, alternative antimicrobial agents should be considered for empirical antibiotic therapy.
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In this open-label, pragmatic trial, we randomly assigned 230 children, 1 to 10 years of age, who had acute tympanostomy-tube otorrhea to receive hydrocortisone-bacitracin-colistin eardrops (76 children) or oral amoxicillin-clavulanate suspension (77) or to undergo initial observation (77). The primary outcome was the presence of otorrhea, as assessed otoscopically, 2 weeks after study-group assignment. Secondary outcomes were the duration of the initial otorrhea episode, the total number of days of otorrhea and the number of otorrhea recurrences during 6 months of follow-up, quality of life, complications, and treatment-related adverse events.
Beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates of Haemophilus influenzae have been emerging in some countries, including Japan. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute has only a susceptible MIC breakpoint (< or = 1 microg/ml) for piperacillin-tazobactam and a disclaimer comment that BLNAR H. influenzae should be considered resistant, which was adapted without presentation of data. In addition, fluoroquinolone-resistant H. influenzae isolates have recently been occasionally reported worldwide. To address these problems, we examined susceptibilities to beta-lactams, including piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin by microdilution and disk diffusion (only for piperacillin-tazobactam) methods, against a total of 400 recent H. influenzae clinical isolates, including 100 beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-susceptible, beta-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant, BLNAR, and beta-lactamase-positive amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant (BLPACR) isolates each. BLNAR and BLPACR isolates were tested by PCR using primers that amplify specific regions of the ftsI gene. We also detected mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) by direct sequencing of the PCR products of DNA fragments. Among beta-lactams, piperacillin-tazobactam exhibited potent activity against all isolates of H. influenzae, with all MICs at < or = 0.5 microg/ml (susceptible). A disk diffusion breakpoint for piperacillin-tazobactam of > or = 21 mm is proposed. We confirmed that all BLNAR and BLPACR isolates had amino acid substitutions in the ftsI gene and that the major pattern was group III-like (87.5%). One ciprofloxacin-resistant isolate (MIC, 16 microg/ml) and 31 ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates (MICs, 0.06 to 0.5 microg/ml) had amino acid changes in their QRDRs. Piperacillin-tazobactam was the most potent beta-lactam tested against all classes of H. influenzae isolates. It is possible that fluoroquinolone-resistant H. influenzae will emerge since several clinical isolates carried mutations in their QRDRs.
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The prevalence and cotrimoxazole susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from sputum of 100 HIV-positive patients attending the Nigeria Institute of Medical Research clinic was investigated using standard microbiological methods. Eleven of the sputum specimens grew Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that all the isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin, augmentin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol but were resistant to cotrimoxazole. Continuous surveillance of S pneumoniae in sputum samples of HIV-positive subjects in this environment is necessary in order to regulate treatment regimen, considering that cotrimoxazole is the drug recommended by WHO for respiratory infections in HIV patients.