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Trichomoniasis is a common but less well known sexually transmitted infection affecting men and women. In men it is often asymptomatic and goes undetected. In women it can produce a profuse, frothy, unpleasant-smelling vaginal discharge with pruritus and soreness which is sometimes confused with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (thrush) and bacterial vaginosis. Women often mistakenly treat themselves for thrush with no result. Diagnosis is by laboratory culture and treatment is with metronidazole. Partner notification and treatment should be undertaken. Trichomoniasis often coexists with chlamydia and gonorrhoea. It can have consequences for reproduction, including low birth weight and preterm labour, and has been found to be a co-factor in the transmission of HIV. It is therefore mandatory to ensure prompt and appropriate treatment for all patients diagnosed with trichomoniasis.
Intracranial complications of sinusitis now are unusual and subdural empyema is even more infrequent. Furthermore, subdural empyema usually is related to sinus infections, particularly those caused by Streptococcus milleri, an anaerobic organism. Although clinical suspicion is fundamental, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are essential for discovering these complications. These studies enable early diagnosis and prompt treatment, thus reducing the high mortality of this disease. We report two cases of subdural empyema secondary to sinusitis in persons without impaired immunity. Streptococcus milleri was isolated in one of them. A review of the literature disclosed that this is the most frequently involved organism, so the empirical selection of antibiotics targeted this organism.
Metronidazole may increase the risk of acute pancreatitis. However, the risk seems mainly to increase when metronidazole is used in combination with other drugs used for Helicobacter pylori eradication.
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The management of amoebic liver abscess includes antiamoebic drugs combined or not with percutaneous puncture or surgical drainage. This study was to suggest a decision tree for the therapeutic approach of such feature.
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A total of 160 patients with functional dyspepsia who were Hp+ were randomly assigned into two groups. Regimen: Omeprazole 20 mg, Amoxicillin 1.0 g, Clarithromycin 500 mg and Bismuth Potassium Citrate 220 mg, twice a day. Eighty patients received 7-day quadruple therapy and 80 patients received the same therapy for 14 days. Six weeks after treatment, H. pylori eradication was assessed by (13)C-urea breath test. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of metronidazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin of clinical isolates were determined by the twofold agar dilution method.
When using pantoprazole plus clarithromycin and metronidazole, the proton pump inhibitor can be used once daily without loss of efficacy.
Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The main virulence factors of C. difficile are the toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB). A third toxin, called binary toxin (CDT), can be detected in 17% to 23% of strains, but its role in human disease has not been clearly defined. We report six independent cases of patients with diarrhoea suspected of having C. difficile infection due to strains from toxinotype XI/PCR ribotype 033 or 033-like, an unusual toxinotype/PCR ribotype positive for CDT but negative for TcdA and TcdB. Four patients were considered truly infected by clinicians and were specifically treated with oral metronidazole. One of the cases was identified during a prevalence study of A(-)B(-)CDT(+) strains. In this study, we screened a French collection of 220 nontoxigenic strains and found only one (0.5%) toxinotype XI/PCR ribotype 033 or 033-like strain. The description of such strains raises the question of the role of binary toxin as a virulence factor and could have implications for laboratory diagnostics that currently rarely include testing for binary toxin.
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Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive anaerobe that forms subterminal spores. It is now one of major nosocomial pathogens, mainly in older patients, because of its ability to persist in the environment and to become established in the gastrointestinal tract once the natural microflora has been modified by antibiotic therapy. Toxigenic strains of C. difficile produce toxin A (enterotoxin) or toxin B (cytotoxin) or both with cause the cytotoxic effect "rounding". C. difficile can spread from patient to patient and, probably, the primary way by which the organism is spread is by health care workers. C. difficile causes intestinal diseases ranging by mild diarrhea (antibiotic associated diarrhea) to fatal pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). The current therapy is based on oral administration of metronidazole or vancomycin . In patients non responders or that continue to relapse can be used other forms of therapy: antibiotic (teicoplanine, bacitracine, rifamixine); anion exchange resin (colestipol, colestiramine); probiotic therapy (S. boulardii, lactobacilli and fecal enemas). New and improved studies will lead to new and better ways of treating patients and better understanding of this unusual pathogen and how it causes diseases.
Application of honey dressing provides a better wound healing, rapid pain relief in cancer patients with bedsores in palliative settings.