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Treatments with once-daily trovafloxacin (200 or 100 mg) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (500/125 mg three times daily) were compared in adults with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive bronchitis. At end of treatment, 95% (113/119) of clinically evaluable patients receiving trovafloxacin 200 mg, 98% (113/115) of patients treated with trovafloxacin 100 mg and 97% (113/117) of patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were cured or improved. At study end, 91%, 87% and 88%, respectively, were cured or improved. At end of treatment, trovafloxacin 200 mg eradicated Haemophilus influenzae in 97% of patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 90% and Chlamydia pneumoniae in 100%. The respective eradication rates for trovafloxacin 100 mg were 84%, 100% and 100%; those for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were 92%, 100% and 100%. At study end, trovafloxacin 200 mg totally eradicated all three pathogens. Trovafloxacin 100 mg eradicated Haemophilus influenzae in 91% of patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 100% and Chlamydia pneumoniae in 80%. Respective eradication rates for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were 78%, 100% and 80%. Only 7% (10/144) of patients receiving trovafloxacin 200 mg reported treatment-related adverse events, as did 7% (10/135) of patients given trovafloxacin 100 mg and 12% (17/140) of patients given amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiology of secondary bacterial peritonitis due to appendicitis and the appropriateness of current antimicrobial practice in one institution.
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Recent mastoidectomy may be a risk factor for the development of a post-auricular abscess in children, who develop AOM following cochlear implantation. A treatment algorithm was developed, which emphasizes early operative drainage in conjunction with aggressive antibiotic therapy. Conclusions A consistent approach to the management of mastoiditis in children with cochlear implants has not been established. Rapid initiation of aggressive antibiotic therapy and a low threshold for conservative operative intervention results in effective resolution of infection while allowing preservation of the implant.
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Knowledge about the performance of dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract is essential for the development of new oral delivery systems, as well as for the choice of the optimal formulation technology. Magnetic Marker Monitoring (MMM) is an imaging technology for the investigation of the behaviour of solid oral dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract, which is based on the labelling of solid dosage forms as a magnetic dipole and determination of the location, orientation and strength of the dipole after oral administration using measurement equipment and localization methods that are established in biomagnetism. MMM enables the investigation of the performance of solid dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract with a temporal resolution in the range of a few milliseconds and a spatial resolution in 3D in the range of some millimetres. Thereby, MMM provides real-time tracking of dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract. MMM is also suitable for the determination of dosage form disintegration and for quantitative measurement of in vivo drug release in case of appropriate extended release dosage forms like hydrogel-forming matrix tablets. The combination of MMM with pharmacokinetic measurements (pharmacomagnetography) enables the determination of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIC) and the delineation of absorption sites in the gastrointestinal tract.
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• To report the first UK outbreak of NDM-1 Klebsiella, for which the common source of infection was rapidly traced to the endoscopic camera head in the urology theatre, where camera sheathing was not routinely used and the camera head was regularly cleaned with detergent wipes. • To survey the use of camera sheath and infection control practices in endoscopy in urology in the UK.
4826 women with pPROM were randomly assigned 250 mg erythromycin (n=1197), 325 mg co-amoxiclav (250 mg amoxicillin plus 125 mg clavulanic acid; n=1212), both (n=1192), or placebo (n=1225) four times daily for 10 days or until delivery. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease, or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. Analysis was by intention to treat.
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API ATB 24H is an automated system designed to test the sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics. Using this system we found that it was not fully able to detect acquired resistance to oxy-iminocephalosporins in enterobacteriaceae producing extended broad spectrum betalactamase (CTX-1, SHV-3, SHV-4). However, the frequency of detection varied with the type of API SYSTEM (ATB G-, ATB PSE), the nature of beta lactam antibiotic (cefotaxime, ceftazidime) and the type of beta lactamase produced. Considering the fact that this new mechanism of resistance must be taken into account, we suggest that the most simple method for the detection of oxy-imini beta lactamases is a double disk test of synergy between Augmentin (acid clavulanic + amoxycillin) and 1 disk of oxy-iminocephalosporin.
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The activity of eight antimicrobial agents which might be used in the treatment of staphylococcal osteomyelitis was tested under anaerobic conditions similar to those found in chronically infected bone. An agar-dilution method was employed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tobramycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, ceftriaxone, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against 25 coagulase-positive and 25 coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains. The activity of tobramycin against coagulase-positive staphylococci, and of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid against coagulase-negative staphylococci was markedly decreased with anaerobiosis. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and ciprofloxacin were active against coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. It was also found that antibiotic concentrations comparable to the high levels which might be achieved with local antibiotic therapy of osteomyelitis were not sufficient to overcome the level of resistance (100 micrograms/ml) of staphylococci which were not susceptible to tobramycin, clindamycin, ceftriaxone, and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid.
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Overall, 93.5% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the current susceptible breakpoint of < or =2 microg/mL and 97.3% at the PK/PD susceptible breakpoint of < or =4 microg/mL for the extended release formulation. Proportions of isolates that were penicillin intermediate and resistant were 13% and 16.5%, respectively, while 25% were macrolide resistant and 21.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant. 21.9% of Haemophilus influenzae were beta-lactamase producers and 16.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant, >99% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefixime, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at NCCLS breakpoints. The most active agents against Moraxella catarrhalis were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, macrolides, cefixime, fluoroquinolones, and doxycycline. Overall, 13% of Streptococcus pyogenes were resistant to macrolides.
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Duration of acute tube otorrhea and duration of bacterial growth in middle-ear fluid.
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Serum sickness-like reaction is a rare disease presentation. We describe a case of a man aged 58 years who presented with acute-onset polyarthralgia, intense pruritus of hands and feet, fever to 39.5°C and leucocytosis to 17.2×10(3)/mm(3) 5 days after completing a 10-day course of amoxicillin/clavulanate for the treatment of finger cellulitis. With history, symptoms, physical examination findings and reported cases in the literature of serum sickness-like reactions to amoxicillin, a clinical diagnosis of serum sickness-like reaction was made. The patient was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories with improvement in symptoms by the time of discharge.
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Amoxyclav (amoxycillin/potassium clavulanate, A/PC) was used in the treatment of 55 children with acute bronchitis and pneumonia. The drug was administered in a dose of 20-40 mg/kg body weight a day in 3 portions. The treatment course was 4 to 10 days. The treatment was performed under careful clinicoroent-genologic control. The clinical picture of the disease in the children was characterized by a moderate process which made it possible to treat the children as outpatients. The clinical efficacy amounted to 90.5 per cent. The isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae proved to be susceptible to A/PC. It may be used as the 1st class agent in the treatment of children with lower respiratory tract infection.