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Amoklavin (Augmentin)
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Amoklavin

Amoklavin is a penicillin antibiotic with a notably broad spectrum of activity. The bi-layer tablets provide an immediate release of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium and an extended release of amoxicillin. This enhanced formulation prolongs the time that bacteria are exposed to the antibiotic and promotes coverage of tough-to-treat S. pneumoniae.

Other names for this medication:
Aclav, Alfoxil, Alphamox, Ambilan, Amimox, Amixen, Amobay, Amobiotic, Amocla, Amoclan, Amoclane, Amodex, Amoksiklav, Amolin, Amorion, Amotaks, Amoval, Amoxal, Amoxan, Amoxibeta, Amoxicap, Amoxiclav, Amoxidal, Amoxidin, Amoxiduo, Amoxihexal, Amoxiplus, Amoxival, Amoxoral, Amoxsan, Amoxy, Amoxydar, Ampliron, Amylin, Atoksilin, Augmaxcil, Augmentin, Augmex, Augpen, Bactoclav, Betamox, Bioclavid, Biomox, Blumox, Cavumox, Cilamox, Clabat, Clamentin, Clamicil, Clamovid, Clamoxin, Claneksi, Clavam, Clavamel, Clavamox, Clavaseptin, Clavet, Clavinex, Clavipen, Clavobay, Clavubactin, Clavucid, Clavulin, Clavulox, Clavumox, Clonamox, Curam, Dexyclav, Dimopen, Duomox, Enhancin, Exten, Fabamox, Fleming, Fulgram, Germentin, Gimaclav, Gloclav, Glomox, Grinsil, Hiconcil, Himox, Homer, Hymox, Imadrax, Julmentin, Julphamox, Kesium, Klamoks, Klavox, Klavunat, Largopen, Macropen, Maxamox, Medoclav, Megamox, Megapen, Moxacil, Moxatag, Moxiclav, Moxilen, Moxilin, Moxypen, Myclav, Mymox, Natravox, Neomox, Nisamox, Noprilam, Noroclav, Novaclav, Novamox, Novax, Novocilin, Optamox, Oramox, Origin, Panklav, Pediamox, Pinaclav, Pinamox, Ranclav, Ranmoxy, Ranoxyl, Rapiclav, Ronemox, Sulbacin, Suprapen, Synulox, Topcillin, Trifamox, Ultramox, Unimox, Vetrimoxin, Vulamox, Xiclav, Zoxil

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Also known as:  Augmentin.

Description

Amoklavin is a brand name for an antibiotic, called co-amoxiclav, that is used to treat a wide range of conditions, from bronchitis to Lyme disease. It is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for children, frequently dispensed for ear infections.

The drug is a combination of two active ingredients: amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Together, the drugs fight bacteria that would ordinarily be resistant to amoxicillin alone.

Dosage

Amoklavin is typically taken orally, in pill form for adults, and in a liquid (often flavored) suspension for little children. Doctors prescribe the drug so often because it works against many types of disease-causing bacteria.

"When I travel I always have some Amoklavin in my travel bag," because it works against so many common infections, said Dr. Alasdair Geddes, an emeritus professor of infectious diseases at the University of Birmingham in England, who ran some of the first clinical trials of Amoklavin.

Amoklavin is one of the workhorses of the pediatrician's office, prescribed for ear infections that are resistant to amoxicillin alone, sore throats and certain eye infections. The drug is also a powerful agent against bronchitis and tonsillitis caused by bacteria (though many cases of sore throat are viral in origin).

In addition, the drug can fight pneumonia, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, and skin infections. The drug has also been seen as a good potential candidate for treatment of Lyme disease, chlamydia, sinusitis, gastritis and peptic ulcers, according to a 2011 study in the International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Though Amoklavin hasn't been conclusively shown to be safe during pregnancy, some studies suggest it is unlikely to do harm to pregnant women or their fetuses, according to a 2004 study in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Women who are pregnant should check with their doctors before taking the drug. The Food and Drug Administration classifies Amoklavin as a class B drug, meaning there is no evidence for harm.

Overdose

If you take too much this medication, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center, or seek emergency medical attention right away.

If this medication is administered by a healthcare provider in a medical setting, it is unlikely that an overdose will occur. However, if overdose is suspected, seek emergency medical attention.

Storage

Store between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep bottle closed tightly. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Amoklavin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterials, including Amoklavin. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with Amoklavin, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, Amoklavin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

amoklavin 200 mg

Treatments with once-daily trovafloxacin (200 or 100 mg) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (500/125 mg three times daily) were compared in adults with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive bronchitis. At end of treatment, 95% (113/119) of clinically evaluable patients receiving trovafloxacin 200 mg, 98% (113/115) of patients treated with trovafloxacin 100 mg and 97% (113/117) of patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were cured or improved. At study end, 91%, 87% and 88%, respectively, were cured or improved. At end of treatment, trovafloxacin 200 mg eradicated Haemophilus influenzae in 97% of patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 90% and Chlamydia pneumoniae in 100%. The respective eradication rates for trovafloxacin 100 mg were 84%, 100% and 100%; those for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were 92%, 100% and 100%. At study end, trovafloxacin 200 mg totally eradicated all three pathogens. Trovafloxacin 100 mg eradicated Haemophilus influenzae in 91% of patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 100% and Chlamydia pneumoniae in 80%. Respective eradication rates for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were 78%, 100% and 80%. Only 7% (10/144) of patients receiving trovafloxacin 200 mg reported treatment-related adverse events, as did 7% (10/135) of patients given trovafloxacin 100 mg and 12% (17/140) of patients given amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiology of secondary bacterial peritonitis due to appendicitis and the appropriateness of current antimicrobial practice in one institution.

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Recent mastoidectomy may be a risk factor for the development of a post-auricular abscess in children, who develop AOM following cochlear implantation. A treatment algorithm was developed, which emphasizes early operative drainage in conjunction with aggressive antibiotic therapy. Conclusions A consistent approach to the management of mastoiditis in children with cochlear implants has not been established. Rapid initiation of aggressive antibiotic therapy and a low threshold for conservative operative intervention results in effective resolution of infection while allowing preservation of the implant.

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Knowledge about the performance of dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract is essential for the development of new oral delivery systems, as well as for the choice of the optimal formulation technology. Magnetic Marker Monitoring (MMM) is an imaging technology for the investigation of the behaviour of solid oral dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract, which is based on the labelling of solid dosage forms as a magnetic dipole and determination of the location, orientation and strength of the dipole after oral administration using measurement equipment and localization methods that are established in biomagnetism. MMM enables the investigation of the performance of solid dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract with a temporal resolution in the range of a few milliseconds and a spatial resolution in 3D in the range of some millimetres. Thereby, MMM provides real-time tracking of dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract. MMM is also suitable for the determination of dosage form disintegration and for quantitative measurement of in vivo drug release in case of appropriate extended release dosage forms like hydrogel-forming matrix tablets. The combination of MMM with pharmacokinetic measurements (pharmacomagnetography) enables the determination of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIC) and the delineation of absorption sites in the gastrointestinal tract.

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• To report the first UK outbreak of NDM-1 Klebsiella, for which the common source of infection was rapidly traced to the endoscopic camera head in the urology theatre, where camera sheathing was not routinely used and the camera head was regularly cleaned with detergent wipes. • To survey the use of camera sheath and infection control practices in endoscopy in urology in the UK.

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4826 women with pPROM were randomly assigned 250 mg erythromycin (n=1197), 325 mg co-amoxiclav (250 mg amoxicillin plus 125 mg clavulanic acid; n=1212), both (n=1192), or placebo (n=1225) four times daily for 10 days or until delivery. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease, or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. Analysis was by intention to treat.

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API ATB 24H is an automated system designed to test the sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics. Using this system we found that it was not fully able to detect acquired resistance to oxy-iminocephalosporins in enterobacteriaceae producing extended broad spectrum betalactamase (CTX-1, SHV-3, SHV-4). However, the frequency of detection varied with the type of API SYSTEM (ATB G-, ATB PSE), the nature of beta lactam antibiotic (cefotaxime, ceftazidime) and the type of beta lactamase produced. Considering the fact that this new mechanism of resistance must be taken into account, we suggest that the most simple method for the detection of oxy-imini beta lactamases is a double disk test of synergy between Augmentin (acid clavulanic + amoxycillin) and 1 disk of oxy-iminocephalosporin.

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The activity of eight antimicrobial agents which might be used in the treatment of staphylococcal osteomyelitis was tested under anaerobic conditions similar to those found in chronically infected bone. An agar-dilution method was employed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tobramycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, ceftriaxone, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against 25 coagulase-positive and 25 coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains. The activity of tobramycin against coagulase-positive staphylococci, and of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid against coagulase-negative staphylococci was markedly decreased with anaerobiosis. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and ciprofloxacin were active against coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. It was also found that antibiotic concentrations comparable to the high levels which might be achieved with local antibiotic therapy of osteomyelitis were not sufficient to overcome the level of resistance (100 micrograms/ml) of staphylococci which were not susceptible to tobramycin, clindamycin, ceftriaxone, and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid.

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Overall, 93.5% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the current susceptible breakpoint of < or =2 microg/mL and 97.3% at the PK/PD susceptible breakpoint of < or =4 microg/mL for the extended release formulation. Proportions of isolates that were penicillin intermediate and resistant were 13% and 16.5%, respectively, while 25% were macrolide resistant and 21.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant. 21.9% of Haemophilus influenzae were beta-lactamase producers and 16.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant, >99% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefixime, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at NCCLS breakpoints. The most active agents against Moraxella catarrhalis were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, macrolides, cefixime, fluoroquinolones, and doxycycline. Overall, 13% of Streptococcus pyogenes were resistant to macrolides.

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Duration of acute tube otorrhea and duration of bacterial growth in middle-ear fluid.

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Serum sickness-like reaction is a rare disease presentation. We describe a case of a man aged 58 years who presented with acute-onset polyarthralgia, intense pruritus of hands and feet, fever to 39.5°C and leucocytosis to 17.2×10(3)/mm(3) 5 days after completing a 10-day course of amoxicillin/clavulanate for the treatment of finger cellulitis. With history, symptoms, physical examination findings and reported cases in the literature of serum sickness-like reactions to amoxicillin, a clinical diagnosis of serum sickness-like reaction was made. The patient was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories with improvement in symptoms by the time of discharge.

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Amoxyclav (amoxycillin/potassium clavulanate, A/PC) was used in the treatment of 55 children with acute bronchitis and pneumonia. The drug was administered in a dose of 20-40 mg/kg body weight a day in 3 portions. The treatment course was 4 to 10 days. The treatment was performed under careful clinicoroent-genologic control. The clinical picture of the disease in the children was characterized by a moderate process which made it possible to treat the children as outpatients. The clinical efficacy amounted to 90.5 per cent. The isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae proved to be susceptible to A/PC. It may be used as the 1st class agent in the treatment of children with lower respiratory tract infection.

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amoklavin bid 625 mg 2017-03-07

In this study amoxicillin/clavulanate was associated with a detectable clinical effect in Filmet 400 Mg the reduction of fever and infection in neutropenic children with cancer, especially those with acute leukemia and not receiving growth factors; the study was not powered to demonstrate a statistically significant effect in the overall patient population.

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The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of amoxicillin-clavulanate and tetracycline-based quadruple therapy as Novamox Dry Syrup an alternative second-line treatment for H. pylori infection.

amoklavin drug 2015-03-20

Production of TEM-1 beta-lactamase is the commonest cause of acquired resistance to amoxycillin and piperacillin in Escherichia coli, now occurring in c. 50% of isolates. Consecutive E. coli isolates producing TEM-1 beta-lactamase were collected at The London Hospital in 1982 (n = 50) and 1989 (n = 46). Enzyme Penamox Amoxicilina 875 Mg quantities varied 150-fold amongst the isolates. Randomly-selected isolates from both years (n = 36; nine per quartile of the beta-lactamase activity distribution) were tested for susceptibility to combinations of amoxycillin or piperacillin with clavulanate or tazobactam or with BRL42715, a novel penem. The inhibitor concentrations needed to potentiate the penicillins related to the amount of beta-lactamase produced. BRL42715, at 1 mg/l, rendered all the isolates, including TEM-1 hyperproducers, susceptible to the recommended BSAC breakpoints of 8 mg amoxycillin/1 and 16 mg piperacillin/l. At 2 mg/l, BRL42715 almost always reduced amoxycillin and piperacillin MICs to the levels (1-2 mg/l) expected for E. coli isolates that lack TEM-1 enzyme. Tazobactam, at 1-2 mg/l, reduced piperacillin MICs to 1-2 mg/l for strains in the lower half of the beta-lactamase distribution, but greater than 8 mg tazobactam/l was required to reduce piperacillin MICs to 16 mg/l for one-third of the top quartile isolates. Clavulanate was a stronger potentiator of piperacillin than was tazobactam. On the other hand, amoxycillin was a more difficult substrate to potentiate than piperacillin, and isolates with enzyme levels in the top half of the distribution generally required greater than or equal to 8 mg clavulanate/l to reduce amoxycillin MICs to less than or equal to 8 mg/l.

amoklavin 1000 mg film tablet yan etkileri 2015-04-03

We identified four trials involving 1314 children. Three trials investigated the use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to prevent otitis and one investigated ampicillin to prevent pneumonia.The use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to placebo to prevent otitis showed a risk ratio (RR) of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 1.11, three trials, 414 selected children, moderate-quality evidence). Methods of random sequence generation and allocation concealment were not clearly stated in two trials. Performance, detection and reporting bias could not be ruled out in three trials.Ampicillin compared to supportive Kalixocin Tablets Side Effects care (continuation of breastfeeding, clearing of the nose and paracetamol for fever control) to prevent pneumonia showed a RR of 1.05 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.49, one trial, 889 selected children, moderate-quality evidence). The trial was non-blinded. Random sequence generation and allocation concealment methods were not clearly stated, so the possibility of reporting bias could not be ruled out.Harm outcomes could not be analysed as they were expressed only in percentages.We found no studies assessing mastoiditis, quinsy, abscess, meningitis, hospital admission or death.

amoklavin film tablet 2017-04-25

Eighty-nine patients from 16 centers were included: 21 (23.6%) patients had acute infection and 68 (76.4%) had chronic infection. Of all 89 patients, there were 80 total culture isolates with 55 (68.8%) Gram-positive isolates, 23 (28.7%) Gram-negative isolates, and 2 (2.5%) Mycobacterium isolates. In the acute group, 18/23 (78.3%) were Gram-positive and 5/23 (21.7%) were Gram-negative. In the chronic group, 37/57 (64.9%) were Gram-positive, 18/57 (31.6%) were Gram-negative, and 2/57 (3.5%) were Mycobacterium isolates. The proportions of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms between groups revealed Erythromycin Penicillin Allergy no statistically significant difference (p > 0.20). The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the acute group, 4/23 (17.4%), was greater than the chronic group, 1/57 (1.8%) (p < or = 0.01).

amoklavin 625 mg nedir 2017-06-23

To measure the effect of opsonophagocytosis mediated by complement activated by specific antibodies on the co-amoxiclav serum bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with reduced susceptibility to beta- Erythromycin Ointment Cost Without Insurance lactams (amoxicillin MICs of 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/L).

amoklavin 14 tablet 2017-06-02

Cases of AOM (873) accounted for 7.1% of the sample. There is a clear variation in the percentage of children diagnosed with AOM and treated with antibiotics in the different locations, antibiotic prescriptions being higher in Barcelona (93% of children), and lowest in Smolensk (56.4 % of children were treated without antibiotics). The antibiotics Vanadyl Sulfate Dosage used varied widely: ampicillin use is almost limited to Smolensk (26.7%) and Bratislava (13.8%), whereas amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid is the choice in Toulouse (33.8%), Valencia (30.2%) and Barcelona (28.9%), and cephalosporins are more frequently prescribed in Tenerife (51.7%). Finally, macrolides are used in Barcelona (18.3%), Valencia (17.5%) and Tenerife (13.6%), but not prescribed in Toulouse or Sofia. Prescriptions of anti-inflammatory drugs were only relevant in Valencia (31.7%), Tenerife (27.2%) and Toulouse (17.4%) and of otological preparations in Sofia, where almost each child received ear drops (91.9%). Nasal preparations are commonly used only in Sofia (41.9%), Bratislava (65.5%) and Smolensk (68.6%).

amoklavin 1000 mg yan etkisi 2015-07-15

Routine susceptibility data for urinary coliform isolates from community practice were analysed in comparison with dispensed antibiotic prescriptions for all conditions and social deprivation data for Bro Taf and North Wales Health Authorities for financial years 1996--1998. Prescribing rates and resistance rates varied widely between practices. Among isolates from practices with high usage of an antibiotic, rates of resistance to that antibiotic tended to be high, and usage correlated significantly with resistance between practice population units. Cross-correlations were found between usage of one antibiotic and resistance to another, particularly for trimethoprim and ampicillin. Usage, particularly of trimethoprim, was associated with multi-resistance to up to four antibiotics. Resistance was more frequent in isolates from males, children and the elderly. Ampicillin resistance correlated with social deprivation. Analyses including or excluding potential repeat isolates yielded closely similar results. Indices reflecting sampling behaviour (laboratory coliform positivity Para Que Sirve Bactocin 400 Mg rates, positivity per 1000 registered patients, specimens submitted per 1000 registered patients) varied widely between surgeries, suggesting lack of consensus on urine sampling policies. These indices showed only weak correlations with usage or resistance. Associations between resistance and usage were compared for isolates from two patient subsets that were likely to differ in their proportions of non-Escherichia coli isolates: female patients aged 16--55 years; and males, children and patients aged >55 years. The latter showed higher base levels of resistance, but the associations of resistance with usage were statistically indistinguishable for the two populations. The results suggest that usage of antibiotics in a practice population may affect the rate of urinary infection caused by resistant coliform organisms in that population.

amoklavin bid 1000 mg dosage 2016-06-07

The aims of this investigation were to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, and to identify parameters that may affect their observed differences in absorption. Data were obtained from plasma concentration-time curves from four different open, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover Phase I bioequivalence studies, with the following co-amoxiclav formulations: tablets 250 Roxithromycin 600 Mg /125, 500/125 and 875/125 mg, or 10 mL of an oral suspension 250/62.5 mg per 5 mL. Data from 144 subjects and 288 drug administrations were available for evaluation. After a 125 mg clavulanic acid dose (administered as potassium clavulanate) for all four different formulations, the clavulanic acid AUC(t) data ranged from 1.5 to 8 mg.h/L, varying by a factor of 5. The absorption of clavulanic acid was not related to the absorption of amoxicillin, or demographic factors, and we were unable to identify the reasons for the large variability in the absorption of clavulanic acid. We conclude that the absorption of clavulanic acid, after oral administration, is highly variable and may vary over a five-fold range between patients.

amoklavin 400 mg 2016-09-24

The authors report a 6-year-old boy with fever, rash and cough. He was diagnosed with severe measles pneumonia and admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with severe dyspnoea 8 days after symptom onset. He received intravenous antibiotics and high dose vitamin A. Three days later, he had recovered and was discharged home. He had not been vaccinated for measles, mumps and rubella according to the schedule. This case highlights the need for rapid diagnosis, appropriate treatment and determination of vaccination status of children with measles in order to prevent complications.

amoklavin bid 625 mg yan etkileri 2015-01-08

Data on target antibiotic prescription were collected on a given day and confronted to local recommendations and literature guidelines. Evaluation of antibiotic therapy was done by assessing molecule choice, administration conditions (dosages, route and administration schedule, treatment duration), reassessment of treatments 48-72 h later, dose adaptation of aminosids depending on serum monitoring.

amoklavin 1000 mg english 2015-08-17

Enteric fever is endemic in this part of the world, and Widal test is one of the time-honored laboratory tests that are being used for years to diagnose the disease. On the other hand, melioidosis is a newly emerging disease from this region, which is most often misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed by clinicians. It is well accepted that false-positive Widal reactions following certain non-typhoid Salmonella infections may occur commonly. Three cases of high titers of Widal test are described, where melioidosis was the actual diagnosis in every occasion and was never suspected until diagnosed microbiologically. All the patients had shown a partial response to ceftriaxone. Blood and pus cultures grew Burkholderia pseudomallei, whereas Salmonella typhi was not isolated from blood in any patient. With appropriate antibiotics, the patients showed clinical and microbiological improvement with lowering of Widal titers. These 3 cases show that high Widal titer in any patient may mislead the diagnosis of melioidosis, and further laboratory workup should always be done to rule out melioidosis, especially in cases with nonresponsiveness to treatment.