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In the first part of this study, a correlation between the throat and nasopharyngeal cultures and the etiological agents of sinusitis given in the literature is investigated. No correlation has been found. In the second part, 80 patients is divided randomly into three groups, 23 patients (28.8%) has been given serum physiologic therapy, 34 patients (42.4%) amoxicillin + antihistaminic + nose drops therapy and 23 patients (28.8%) amoxicillin + antihistaminic + nose drops therapy. Statistically significant clavulanate difference has been found in the cure rate between the antibiotic related regimens and serum physiologic therapies (p less than 0.05), but no significance has been found between amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanate regimens (p greater than 0.05).
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This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.
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The pharmacodynamic (PD) efficacy target of amoxicillin is 40% time above the minimal inhibition concentration (40%T > MIC). Recent studies of other antibiotics have shown that PD-efficacy targets are not always reached. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of hospitalised patients, using amoxicillin/clavulanic acid intravenously (iv), that reach the pharmacodynamic efficacy target 40%T > MIC. Additionally, the association of demographic anthropomorphic and clinical parameters with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin were determined.
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Co-amoxiclav reduces catheter contamination, but this is not translated into better clinically relevant outcomes such as clinical pregnancy rates. Our findings do not support the routine use of antibiotics at embryo transfer.
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Reference strains of Legionella pneumophila (serotypes 1-4, and 6), Legionella micdadei , and Legionella bozemanii proved susceptible (agar dilution test, buffered charcoal yeast extract agar) to erythromycin, rifampin, augmentin (amoxycillin plus clavulanic acid), cefotaxime, cefoxitin, enoxacin , fusidic acid, and norfloxacin; cefamandole was less active. The strains varied in susceptibility to fosfomycin.
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The bactericidal activities and postantibiotic effects (PAE) of clarithromycin-14-hydroxy-clarithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius were determined. A concentration of twice the MIC resulted in bactericidal activity against four of four and three of four organisms at 24 h with clarithromycin-14-hydroxy-clarithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. The PAE of clarithromycin-14-hydroxy-clarithromycin was 1.44 to 3.20 h, compared to the less than 1 h of amoxicillin-clavulanate. Clarithromycin-14-hydroxy-clarithromycin possesses good activity against susceptible anaerobes.
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The bacteriologic and clinical efficacies of clarithromycin [30 or 15 mg/kg/day twice daily (b.i.d.)] or amoxicillin/clavulanate (43.8/6.2 mg/kg/day b.i.d.) for 5 days or penicillin V (30 mg/kg/day 3 times a day) for 10 days were compared. In a randomized, open label, parallel group, multicenter study, 626 children (2-16 years old) with tonsillopharyngitis were enrolled; 537 were evaluable for efficacy. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 4-8 and 21-28 days after therapy.
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There was a reduction in the use of all targeted broad-spectrum antibiotics and an increase in all targeted narrow-spectrum antibiotics, statistically significant for sudden change and/or linear trend. All other antibiotic use remained unchanged. CDI rates fell with incidence rate ratios of 0.35 (0.17, 0.73) (P=0.009). MRSA incidence did not change [0.79 (0.49, 1.28); P=0.32].
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A cooperative network was created in 1994 in Spain to identify all suspicions of DILI following a prospective structured report form. The liver damage was characterized according to hepatocellular, cholestatic, and mixed laboratory criteria and to histologic criteria when available. Further evaluation of causality assessment was centrally performed.