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WHO recommendations for early antimicrobial treatment of childhood pneumonia have been effective in reducing childhood mortality, but the last major revision was over 10 years ago. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, new pneumonia pathogens, and new drugs have prompted WHO to assemble an international panel to review the literature on childhood pneumonia and to develop evidence-based recommendations for the empirical treatment of non-severe pneumonia among children managed by first-level health providers. Treatment should target the bacterial causes most likely to lead to severe disease, including Streptoccocus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The best first-line agent is amoxicillin, given twice daily for 3-5 days, although co-trimoxazole may be an alternative in some settings. Treatment failure should be defined in a child who develops signs warranting immediate referral or who does not have a decrease in respiratory rate after 48-72 h of therapy. If failure occurs, and no indication for immediate referral exists, possible explanations for failure should be systematically determined, including non-adherence to therapy and alternative diagnoses. If failure of the first-line agent remains a possible explanation, suitable second-line agents include high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with or without an affordable macrolide for children over 3 years of age.
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Cefprozil is a new oral cephalosporin with activity against the most common pathogens isolated in acute otitis media. This randomized study enrolled 361 patients (mean age 29 months). Physical examination and culture via tympanocentesis were required less than 48 h before therapy. One hundred and ninety-one patients were evaluable for clinical efficacy; 99 received cefprozil (20 mg/kg/day bd) and 92 received amoxycillin/clavulanate (13.3 mg/kg/day tid). Duration of treatment was 7-9 days for 81 patients, 10 days for 105 patients and 11-16 days for five patients. The treatment groups were comparable with respect to demographics, severity of infection and number of previous episodes. Clinical evaluations of efficacy were based on physical examination including otoscopy within a 14 day period after therapy. Satisfactory clinical responses were achieved in 84% of cefprozil-treated patients and 87% of amoxycillin/clavulanate-treated patients. Pathogens most commonly isolated included Haemophilus influenzae (33%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (22%). All 361 patients were evaluable for safety. Adverse clinical events were reported in 13% (24) of cefprozil-treated patients and 20% (36) of amoxycillin/clavulanate-treated patients. Cefprozil, administered twice a day, is comparable to a regimen of amoxycillin/clavulanate three times a day in the treatment of acute otitis media in children.
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A patient already rehabilitated with a prosthesis supported by two implants at positions 3.4 and 3.6 presented with severe peri-implantitis affecting both implants. Initial probing depths were 11 and 9 mm respectively. Implant at position 3.4 showed a bone-implant gap ≥3 mm all around it, but was kept firmly in place by the prosthesis, still supported by the other implant. The patient refused to have her prosthesis removed. In an attempt to save it anyway, after debridement, sandblasting and decontamination of both implant surfaces an enzyme-deantigenic collagenic bone substitute was grafted. Controls followed at 1, 3, 5 and 12 months after surgery.
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The clinical cure rate in clinically evaluable patients was 98% (184/188) in the clarithromycin ER group and 97% (179/185) in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group (95% CI for the difference in rates [-2.4%, 4.7%]). Clinical cure was sustained at the follow-up visit (96% for each treatment group). The pathogen eradication rates were 94% (61/65) in the clarithromycin ER group and 98% (61/62) in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group (95% CI for difference in rates [-12.0%, 2.9%]). The radiological success rate was 94% (172/183) in both the clarithromycin ER and amoxicillin/clavulanate groups (95% CI for difference in rates [-4.9%, 4.9%]). Symptomatic improvement or relief was observed as early as 2 days-5 days after the initiation of study drug, with a statistically significantly higher resolution rate of sinus pressure (p = 0.027) and improvement/resolution rate of nasal congestion (p = 0.035) during treatment with clarithromycin ER. The resolution/improvement rate at the test-of-cure visit for each treatment group was > or = 94% for the primary acute sinusitis signs/symptoms, with a statistically significantly higher resolution/improvement rate of purulent nasal discharge with clarithromycin ER (p = 0.010). Both study drugs had a positive and rapid impact on quality of life. Patients reported a high level of satisfaction and probability of using either study antibiotic again, and health care resource use was low, with slightly fewer sinusitis-related physician and outpatient visits required by patients in the clarithromycin ER group (p = 0.055). The treatment groups were comparable with respect to incidence of drug-related adverse events.
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Because a multiresistant K. pneumoniae outbreak detected in an intensive care unit of a parisian hospital, combined to the production of the plasmid-encoded cephalosporinase ACC-1, a probable importation via a patient was suggested from another country (Tunisia). The investigation was conducted to examine 35 clinical strains of enterobacteria resistant to ceftazidime without synergy towards Augmentin. Other test of synergy with two inhibitors, BRL 42715, Ro 48-5545 was performed by diffusion method and deposit of 10 micrograms of inhibitor on disks containing ceftazidime, cefoxitin and cefotetan. Synergies were obtained suggesting a probable production of ACC-1 type among six isolates of K. pneumoniae (two), Proteus mirabilis (one) and Salmonella (three) issued from different units. The isoelectric focusing on gel revealed at least one band of beta-lactamase activity at 7.8 but also demonstrated the simultaneous production of several probable beta-lactamases including TEM-type, SHV-2 and ACC-1 among S. enterica ser. Livingstone. The PCR of the gene blaacc-1 was positive. The sequencing (1160 pb) of two products showed high identity (99-100%) with the gene blaacc-1 deposited in 1999. Finally the ACC-1 type reported in Tunisia was probably imported in France via a patient. Because a simultaneous synthesis of ESBL and ACC-1 type, its presence may be invisible and need more investigation.
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We studied BRL 25000, (amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate a beta-lactamase inhibitor in ratio of 2: 1), in the otorhinolaryngological field in terms of its basic and clinical utility. Pharmacokinetics The distribution of BRL 25000 in mucous membrane of maxillary sinus and retaining liquid of maxillary sinus after administration of 1 tablet (375 mg) was favorable and the good transitional properties were obtained. It was similar to chephems. Clinical results BRL 25000 was administered to 26 patients (6 cases with otitis media, 9 cases with tonsillitis, 2 cases with sinusitis, 1 case with laryngitis, 5 cases with pharyngitis, 1 case with epipharyngitis and 2 cases with pharyngolaryngitis). The overall clinical effective response was obtained in 88.5% of patients. Bacteriological effects BRL 25000 was effective against amoxicillin-resistant S. aureus and K. rhinoscleromatis. Side effects No adverse reactions were seen.
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In recent years there has been considerable interest in reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment regimens in patients with common bacterial infections. We conducted two independent, investigator-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trials, one of which included microbiologic evaluation of middle ear fluid obtained by tympanocentesis, comparing the efficacy and safety of 5 or 10 days of treatment with cefuroxime axetil suspension (CAE) with that of 10 days of treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate suspension (AMX/CL) in children with acute otitis media.
This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Children 1 to 10 years of age with a clinical presentation compatible with ABS were eligible for participation. Patients were stratified according to age (<6 or >or=6 years) and clinical severity and randomly assigned to receive either amoxicillin (90 mg/kg) with potassium clavulanate (6.4 mg/kg) or placebo. A symptom survey was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30. Patients were examined on day 14. Children's conditions were rated as cured, improved, or failed according to scoring rules.
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Two independent, investigator-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trials, one of which included microbiologic evaluation of middle-ear fluid obtained by use of tympanocentesis, compared the efficacy and safety of two oral antibiotics, cefuroxime axetil suspension and amoxicillin/clavulanate suspension, in the treatment of children 3 months to 12 years old diagnosed with acute otitis media with effusion (AOME). Four hundred seventy-seven pediatric patients with signs and symptoms of AOME were enrolled at 20 centers and were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of treatment with either cefuroxime axetil suspension 30 mg/kg per day in two divided doses (n = 235) or amoxicillin/clavulanate suspension 40 mg/kg per day in three divided doses (n = 242). Patients were assessed for their response to treatment once during treatment (at 3 to 5 days) and twice after treatment (at 1 to 4 days and at 14 to 18 days). In the study that included tympanocentesis, bacteriologic assessments were based on middle-ear fluid cultures obtained pretreatment, and, when possible, posttreatment in patients with an unsatisfactory clinical outcome. Organisms were isolated from the pretreatment middle-ear fluid specimens of 120 (73%) of 164 patients undergoing tympanocentesis, with the primary pathogens being Streptococcus pneumoniae. Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis (27%, 24%, and 6% of isolates, respectively). Forty-four percent of the H influenzae isolates and 94% of the M catarrhalis isolates that were tested for beta-lactamase production were positive. A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement) was obtained in 70% of clinically assessable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P = 0.40). With respect to the eradication of bacterial pathogens, in the study that included tympanocentesis a satisfactory outcome (cure or presumed cure) was obtained in 84% (32 of 38) and 95% (36 of 38) of bacteriologically assessable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P = 0.26). Treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than was treatment with cefuroxime axetil (37% vs 16%; P < 0.001), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of drug-related gastrointestinal adverse events (34% vs 12%; P < 0.001), particularly diarrhea. Eight patients in the cefuroxime axetil group and 11 patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group withdrew from the studies because of drug-related adverse events. These results indicate that cefuroxime axetil suspension 15 mg/kg twice daily is as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate suspension 13.3 mg/kg three times daily in the treatment of pediatric patients with AOME, but produces fewer gastrointestinal adverse events, particularly diarrhea.
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intra-European spread of plasmid pB1000 among H. influenzae has been shown. The coexistence of plasmid pB1000 and mutations in PBP3 produces an additive resistance phenotype in H. influenzae.
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We report a case of a fast extension of a painful right breast erythema whose starting point was a right parasternal cutaneous abscess. A diagnosis of gas gangrene of the right breast was made. A right mammectomy was carried out in Emergency and an antibiotherapy adapted to the germs was given.