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Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 90% of patients with acute otitis media. This higher-than-expected rate of positive cultures was probably related to the meticulous bacteriologic techniques used.
Amoxicillin/clavulanate was clinically and bacteriologically more effective than azithromycin among children with bacterial AOM, including cases caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-positive H. influenzae.
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We enrolled 730 children; AOM pathogens were isolated at baseline for 249 of the amoxicillin/clavulanate group and 245 of the azithromycin group. For children with AOM pathogens at baseline, clinical success rates at the end-of-therapy visit were 90.5% for amoxicillin/clavulanate versus 80.9% for azithromycin (P < 0.01), and those at the on-therapy and follow-up visits were 94.9% versus 88.0% and 80.3% versus 71.1%, respectively (all P < 0.05). At the on-therapy visit, pretherapy pathogens were eradicated for 94.2% of children receiving amoxicillin/clavulanate versus 70.3% of those receiving azithromycin (P < 0.001). Amoxicillin/clavulanate eradicated 96.0% of S. pneumoniae (92.0% of fully penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae) and 89.7% of H. influenzae (85.7% [6 of 7 cases] of beta-lactamase-positive H. influenzae). Corresponding rates for azithromycin were 80.4% (54.5%) for S. pneumoniae and 49.1% (100% [1 of 1 case]) for H. influenzae (all P < 0.01 for between-drug comparisons).
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A 37-year-old white man without significant past medical history received a 10-day course of amoxicillin/clavulanate for treatment of pneumonia. Thirty-two days after starting amoxicillin/clavulanate, he developed jaundice, rash, pruritus, and increasing fatigue. On further evaluation, with the exclusion of toxicity from other drugs or diseases, the time course to development of cholestatic jaundice correlated with the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. The patient consequently died with progressive hepatic failure, renal failure, and SJS.
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A retrospective data review was carried out to evaluate the resistance patterns to commonly used antibiotics in children with culture proven UTIs.
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Systemic antibiotics given during the first week after tonsillectomy appear to be effective in reducing postoperative morbidity. We assessed the effectiveness of perioperative topical antibiotic rinses in reducing posttonsillectomy morbidity.
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A 25-year-old man presented with Touraine-Solente-Golé syndrome (primary pachydermoperiostosis), with an area of inflammatory dermatosis (12-month evolution) of the scalp at the cranial vertex. The patient presented with arthropathy, clubbing of the digits, diffuse periostosis, pachydermia of the hands and feet, and periosteal hyperostosis of the knee. Facial seborrhea and sebaceous gland hyperplasia were evident (Figure 1A and 1B and Figure 2A and 2B). Examination of the scalp revealed an erythematous pruritic plaque with erosions, crusts, and pustules, on which multiple tufts of 10 to 20 normal-looking hairs emerged from single follicular openings (Figure 3A). Slight pressure on the perifollicular areas resulted in the discharge of purulent material through the dilated follicular openings. Cervical and occipital lymph nodes were not enlarged, and the patient was in generally good health. Routine laboratory findings were normal. Immunologic studies, including a screening for antinuclear antibody, complement, and immunoglobulins, were normal. Both potassium hydroxide staining and fungal culture were negative. Bacteriologic culture of purulent material taken from the affected area was positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Videodermoscopy of the lesion showed rarefied interfollicular twisted red loops centered around actively affected follicles and white dots with absence of normal vascular pattern (Figure 3B). These dermoscopy patterns are markers for folliculitis decalvans, of which tufted hair folliculitis (THF) is a clinical variant. Histologic examination showed hair plugging, a dense perifollicular infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and large areas of scarring and fibrosis, which would confirm suspected THE THF was diagnosed on the grounds of clinical, microbiologic, histologic, and videodermoscopy data. The patient was treated with amoxicillin 875 mg plus clavulanic acid 125 mg twice daily and topical nadifloxacin 1% twice daily for 20 days, achieving substantial clinical improvement. One month after antimicrobial therapy, a single area of cicatricial alopecia with a few hair tufts emerging from single orifices was observed, and no new lesions or symptoms had appeared.
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The activity of RU29246, the active metabolite of the oral cephalosporin ester HR916, was compared in a multicenter study with that of the four oral beta-lactam antibiotics cephalexin, cefaclor, cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate (amoxicillin/CA). RU29246 was generally 2- to 8-fold more active than the other oral cephalosporins and comparable to amoxicillin/CA against staphylococci, and was the most active cephalosporin against group B streptococci. All four cephalosporins were ineffective against enterococci. RU29246 was the only cephalosporin consistently active against Acinetobacter, but all beta-lactam antibiotics had poor activity against Pseudomonas spp. and Xanthomonas maltophilia. RU29246 was comparable to cefixime and more active than the other cephalosporins against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. However, all of the antibiotics had poor activity against Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens. Quality control reference ranges for the quality control organisms Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 are proposed for the broth dilution method based on data derived from this multicenter study.
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The objective of this study was to identify the common etiological pathogens causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in our hospital and sensitivity patterns to the common antibiotics used.
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The median age at which mastoiditis occurred was 37 months, and the mean time from implantation to mastoiditis was 9.56 months. All patients underwent drainage of the middle ear in conjunction with intravenous antibiotics, and two additionally underwent post-auricular incision and drainage.
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Cefditoren exhibited the highest bactericidal activity maintained over time against ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, regardless of beta-lactamase production and/or BLNAR phenotype. From the pharmacodynamic perspective, BSAC breakpoints seem more adequate to define or detect BLNAR strains.