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Ten (7%) out of 143 consecutive interventions in orthognathic surgery were complicated by a SSI. All the SSI were secondary to a mandibular ramus sagittal split osteotomy. The two significantly correlated risk factors with the SSI in multivariate analysis were the length of surgery and the type of antibiotic prophylaxis.
The activity of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid against logarithmically multiplying Mycobacterium leprae was evaluated by treating mice by gavage five times weekly with various amounts of the compound from day 60 to day 150 after footpad infection. At 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, it was inactive; at 200-600 mg/kg, multiplication of M. leprae was entirely prevented for 6-11 months after drug discontinuation, consistent with observations of bactericidal activity for M. leprae. In a confirmatory study in mice, five-times-weekly intraperitoneal ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid, 1000 mg/kg, was not bactericidal for M. leprae, while amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 400 mg/kg five times weekly, was weakly bactericidal (80% +/- 14%). In addition, activity of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 400 mg/kg, was evaluated in combination with previously established active drugs dapsone, 0.0001% (in diet), rifampin, 20 mg/kg monthly (by gavage), and kanamycin, 25 mg/kg five times weekly (intraperitoneally). All three combinations were active, and the combination with kanamycin was more active than either drug alone.
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A prospective randomized clinical study was conducted among children 2 months to 5 years old with a diagnosis of very severe CAP in the pediatric ward of São Paulo State University Hospital in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, from April 2007 to May 2008. Patients were randomly divided into two groups by type of treatment: an oxacillin/ceftriaxone group (OCG, n = 48) and an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid group (ACG, n = 56). Analyzed outcomes were: time to clinical improvement (fever and tachypnea), time on oxygen therapy, length of stay in hospital, need to widen antimicrobial spectrum, and complications (including pleural effusion).
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of short-course antimicrobial therapies [single intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg, not exceeding 1 g), 5 days of azithromycin (10 mg/kg on day 1, then 5 mg/kg daily on days 2-5) and the traditional 10-day course of amoxicillin/clavulanate (90/6.4 mg/kg/day in 2 doses)] in children with acute otitis media (AOM). The study was conducted as a prospective, comparative, open randomized trial between February 2001 and April 2003, and 104 children were enrolled, with a mean age of 3.8 (2.3) years. The clinical and otoscopic assessments of the children were made on days 0, 3, 11 and 30 after admission, and tympanometry was performed on day 30. The patients were diagnosed and followed with a scoring system. Clinical success was achieved in 29/34 patients (85.3%) in the ceftriaxone group, 27/31 patients (87.1%) in the azithromycin group and 34/39 children (87.2%) in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group. The rate of persistence of middle-ear fluid did not differ between the three groups (p>0.05). During the one-month period, no recurrent case was observed. The most common drug-related adverse effects were associated with the gastrointestinal system. In conclusion, for the treatment of children with AOM, the clinical success of single-dose intramuscular ceftriaxone and of five-day azithromycin treatments was comparable to that of the traditional 10-day therapy with high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate.
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Twenty-four patients agreed to undergo nonoperative management, and 50 acted as controls. At a mean follow-up of 14 months, three of the 24 failed on therapy, and 2/21 returned with recurrent appendicitis at 43 and 52 days, respectively. Two patients elected to undergo an interval appendectomy despite absence of symptoms. Appendectomy-free rate at one year was therefore 71% (C.I. 50-87%). No patient developed perforation or other complications. Cost-utility analysis shows a 0.007-0.03 QALM increase and a $1359 savings from $4130 to $2771 per nonoperatively treated patient.
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Standard management of infected mesh advocates its removal, but this often results in a larger hernia than at the time of original repair. In this article we describe a novel approach to manage conservatively an infected prosthetic mesh.
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In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal).
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Clinicians should be aware of amoxicillin/clavulanate as a drug capable of causing hepatitis with eventual systemic dysfunction. While recovery is usually complete following withdrawal of the drug, in patients with rash associated with hepatic dysfunction, renal insufficiency, or other unusual symptoms, earlier consideration of initiating systemic steroids or liver transplantation referral, in hopes of avoiding progressive systemic response, might be worthwhile.
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Septic arthritis in the elderly carries a high mortality. Underlying risk factors, such as diabetes, malignancy, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatobiliary disease and AIDS, should be assessed. Rare causative organisms are occasionally encountered. Here, we describe a case of an 80-year-old diabetic patient with liver cirrhosis who developed Klebsiella pneumoniae septic arthritis, which is a rare cause of joint infection. We postulate that this case supports the notion that the patient's knee effusion seeded during a primary K pneumoniae bacteraemia of intestinal origin and related to liver cirrhosis.
Sixty-nine percent of patients carried beta-lactamase-producing anaerobes, with a mean of one to two strains per patient. Seventy isolates of the beta-lactamase- producing strains formed 4% of the total cultivable anaerobic flora. Prevotella was the most prevalent beta-lactamase-producing species, followed by Capnocytophaga, Veillonella and Bacteroides.