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Fifty-four clinical isolates of Branhamella catarrhalis from patients with bronchopulmonary infections were studied. The MICs for 50 and 90% of the isolates and the geometric mean MICs were determined for 11 antimicrobial agents. All the strains were resistant to trimethoprim but were susceptible to clavulanate-potentiated amoxicillin (Augmentin; Beecham Research Laboratories, London), chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, cefotaxime, and cefuroxime. Beta-lactamase-negative strains were uniformly susceptible to penicillin and ampicillin.
Mesh infection in inguinal herniography is usually caused by Staphilococcus aureus and Staphilcoccus epidermidis. Generally it obliges to prosthesis removal with hernia relapse and increase of social costs for the prolongation of hospitalization.
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To investigate the bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae of simulated amoxicillin serum concentrations obtained in humans after 2000/125 mg sustained-release (SR) and 875/125 mg co-amoxiclav administered twice and three times a day, respectively.
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Eighty two cultures were positive for UTI. Staphylococcus spp (46.3%) and Escherichia coli (39%) were the most common pathogens. There was high resistance to cotrimoxazole (73.2%), nalidixic acid (52.4%) and amoxicillin (51.2%). The most favorable antibiograms were obtained with gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and levofloxacin where 85.4%, 72.0%, 67.1% of isolates respectively, were either sensitive or intermediate. Only 51% of isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.
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Increase of acute liver injury in patients taking amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) as compared to those taking amoxicillin has been suggested. To further investigate the potential hepatotoxicity of the two drugs a historical cohort study was conducted in the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. One hundred and eighteen potential cases of acute liver injury were identified through the regional hospital information system and medical records were reviewed for all of them. Overall, 12 cases of acute liver injury were identified: 3 cases occurred in the amoxicillin exposure category, 2 among co-amoxiclav group, and 7 in the non-use category. The adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 5.7 (CI 95% 1.5-22.1) among users of amoxicillin alone and 6.2 (CI 95% 1.3-29.7) among users of co-amoxiclav.
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Salmonella spp. were identified in all components of the slurry specimens, whereas Campylobacter spp. was only recovered from the unseparated and separated liquid fractions. In both cases, the separated liquid fraction had the highest prevalence of pathogens and the separated solid fraction had the lowest prevalence. None of the slurry specimens examined were positive for E. coli O157:H7, Shigella spp. or Y. enterocolitica. Twenty-nine isolates of Salmonella were recovered from the slurry specimens, comprising seven serovars, of which Salmonella manhattan was the most prevalent, accounting for over half [15 of 29 (51.7%)] of all Salmonella isolates. Salmonella anatum, Salm. derby, Salm. give, Salm. heidelberg, Salm. simi and Salm. stanley serovars were also recovered. All Salmonella isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid), chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim, but has variable resistance to tetracycline (100%), sulphonamides (84.6%), furazolidone (38.5%), nalidixic acid (15.4%) and streptomycin (15.4%). The majority (57.7%) of isolates displayed antibiotic resistance to at least two antibiotic agents, followed by 34.6% of isolates being resistant to three agents and the remainder (7.7%) being resistant to four antibiotics.
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The duration of therapy represents a fundamental aspect in the compliance to the therapy of child pathologies, such as pharyngotonsillitis, treated with oral therapy. Although penicillin and amoxicillin are the first choice antibiotics in the case of a child suffering from pharyngotonsillitis with the proven presence of Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus (GAS), the number of orally administered doses and 10 days of therapy, considerably lower the compliance.
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Unbound drug plasma concentration-time curves were simulated with mean population pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefuroxime axetil, spiramycin, clindamycin, azithromycin, and metronidazole. For drugs showing time-dependent antibacterial killing, the time above MIC90 of the pathogens studied was calculated (T>MIC). For drugs with concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC90 ratio was calculated.