In the Nephrology Unit, 48 episodes of Clostridium difficile diarrhea occurred in 35 patients (7 cases per 100 discharges/year). This figure is higher than the global incidence in the hospital (0.53 cases per 100 discharges/year, p < 0.001). The mean age of the 33 patients with renal diseases was 63 years old and 17 of them were female. Their main diagnoses were chronic renal failure in hemodialysis in 48%, uremic syndrome in 36% and renal transplant in 6%. Seventy nine percent had a history of antimicrobial use (42% quinolones and 36% cephalosporins). In 3 patients, the only risk factor was chronic renal failure. Seventy five percent responded to metronidazole and in 27%, diarrhea recidivated, compared with a 6% recurrence rate in other units, p < 0.02). Eight patients died during hospital stay.
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The main goal in the treatment of periodontitis is to control the subgingival infection. Systemic periodontal antibiotic therapy aims to reinforce mechanical debridement procedures and to support the host defense system in overcoming the infection that remains after conventional mechanical treatment. In particular, patients with early onset periodontitis and patients with refractory periodontitis may benefit from systemic antimicrobial therapy. Outside clinical parameters, the use of microbiologic information can assist in selecting the most optimal antibiotic regimen based on the presence and levels of selected periodontal pathogens.
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The intention-to-treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 90.8/90.8%. Metronidazole or/and clarithromycin resistance had no significant impact on H. pylori eradication rates. A higher overall eradication rate of 96.6% (95% CI: 92.1-101%) was obtained in patients treated with a regimen containing 1.5 g amoxicillin t.d.s compared with 90.7% (95% CI: 82-98.6%) using a regimen with 1 g amoxicillin t.d.s but the difference was not significant. Side-effects reported in 40% of patients were mild.
To evaluate the effect of a short course of oral metronidazole, commonly used for bowel-preparation regimens, on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity, as measured by the [14C N-methyl]-erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) in healthy volunteers.
Eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori decreases worldwide, while antibiotics resistance rates of H. pylori increase rapidly in recent years. In most cases, H. pylori would be resistant to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and quinolone if these antibiotics had been used as component of eradication regimen. H. pylori strains resistant to both tetracycline and furazolidone are rare. The aim of our study was to evaluate efficacy and side effects of tetracycline- and furazolidone-containing quadruple regimen as rescue treatment.
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Eradication treatment was successful in 70% (p NS). Peptic ulcer refractory in 23% of patients and NSAID's use was inversely related to Hp eradication (p 0.05).
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Fourteen-day hybrid sequential-concomitant therapy achieved > 95%H. pylori eradication (Grade A result). Further studies are needed 1, in regions with different patterns and frequencies of resistance to confirm these findings, and 2, to examine whether Grade A success is maintained with hybrid therapy shorter than 14 days.
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The antibacterial activities of 2% CHX gel, 2% Metronidazole in Orabase, Emundo+Laser (an infra-red laser diode of 810nm, 300mW, continuous mode radiation, 30s and energy density of 11.5J/cm2), and Emundo against P. gingivalis was tested in vitro using two different methods; (1) Counting CFU/mL and (2) agar diffusion test (ADT). Data of CFU/mL were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Post hoc Tukey test (p<0.05). Data obtained from ADT test were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis.
Tinidazole is more effective in reducing clinical failure compared with metronidazole and has fewer associated adverse events. Combination drug therapy is more effective in reducing parasitological failure compared with metronidazole alone. However, these results are based on trials with poor methodological quality so there is uncertainty in these conclusions. Further trials of the efficacy of antiamoebic drugs, with better methodological quality, are recommended. More accurate tests to detect E. histolytica are needed, particularly in countries where concomitant infection with other bacteria and parasites is common.
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Metronidazole is a synthetic nitroimidazole derivative with antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. It was the first topical therapy approved solely for rosacea and remains a cornerstone of rosacea management. This article reviews the optimal use of topical metronidazole in the treatment of rosacea and other innovative but off-label dermatologic uses reported in the literature.
Bismuth salts are not available worldwide. It remains unknown whether clarithromycin can replace bismuth salts as an adjuvant agent in the rescue regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore designed the prospective study to compare the efficacies of two rescue therapies for H. pylori infection after standard triple therapies.
Colonoscopy in 5 patients and flexible sigmoidoscopy in 3 patients. The indication for endoscopy was screening in 5 patients, cancer surveillance in 2 patients and preoperative evaluation of colon carcinoma in 1 patient.