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The prevalence and spectrum of antimicrobial use in Finnish acute care hospitals were high. NI patients contributed markedly to the total usage. The NI survey with a 7 day data collection period provided insights into the use-density of antimicrobials.
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Evaluate and compare the current clinical and preclinical therapies of CDAD.
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To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic patients in the Republic of Yemen and the recurrence rate 1 year after apparently successful eradication.
The inflammatory process involving Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis is thought to lead to epithelial damage and contribute to the development of gastric cancer. Evidence exists from animal and in vitro studies suggesting that tetracyclines have both anti-inflammatory and tissue-protectant effects unrelated to their antimicrobial activity. We attempted to modulate components of H. pylori's inflammatory process by: (i) eliminating the infection; (ii) using tetracycline to alter the host's reaction to the infection without reducing the bacterial load; and (iii) using calcium to counteract the effect of excessive dietary salt.
The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of antimicrobial agents are the two fundamental pharmacological components which provide a rationale for the choice of therapy for intraabdominal infections, and especially serious infections. The most important PK-PD parameters are well known which can potentiate therapeutic efficacy. Antimicrobial agents can be subdivided into categories based on whether their activity is dependent on concentration or exposure time. Therefore, a correct dosing regimen for the time-dependent molecules (i.e. beta-lactams, linezolid, tigecycline) should prolong the maximum exposure time to maintain serum levels over the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The concentration-dependent molecules, on the other hand, which include aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, should be given in order to reach maximum concentrations, since they are bactericidal in direct proportion to their concentrations and possess a prolonged post-antibiotic effect.
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In 2004, a written questionnaire regarding the antibiotic treatment in scheduled operations for colorectal cancer and acute colorectal surgery was submitted to all 39 surgical departments in Denmark which at the time performed colorectal surgical procedures.
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Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease.
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Anaerobes are a relatively uncommon but important cause of bloodstream infection. However, their epidemiology has not been well defined in non-selected populations. We sought to describe the incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes associated with anaerobic bacteremia.
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Seventy-five root blocks were obtained from extracted single rooted human teeth. The canal diameter was increased using Gates- Glidden drill up to size 3 and then contaminated with E. faecalis for 21 days. The contaminated samples were then divided into following 5 groups. Group 1: Saline (negative group), Group 2: Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2, Group 3: 2% CHX gel, Group 4: Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP) (50 μg - metronidazole of 400 mg, 50 μg - minocycline of 100 mg, 50 μg - ciprofloxacin of 100 mg) and Group 5: Moxifloxacin (50 μg - moxifloxacin of 400 mg). Dentin debris was obtained at the end of first, 7(th), and 10(th) day using Gates Glidden drill sizes 4 and 5. The bacterial load was assessed by counting the number of Colony Forming Units (CFUs). The data were analyzed with the ANOVA and Post-Hoc tests to assess the differences in antibacterial efficacy between groups (p=<0.001).
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No in-vitro studies, animal models, reports of adverse effects or clinical studies provide any convincing evidence of a disulfiram-like interaction between ethanol and metronidazole.