beta-Lactam antibiotics share a common structure and mechanism of action, although they differ in their spectrum of antimicrobial activity and utility in treating different infections. The current classes include the penicillins, the penicillinase-resistant penicillins, the extended- spectrum penicillins, the cephalosporins, the carbapenems, and the monobactams. This article discusses some of the newest beta-lactams available for use in the United States: ertapenem, cefditoren, and cefepime. A new formulation of amoxicillin-clavulanate, which contains higher doses of amoxicillin, is also discussed.
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Patients with streptococcal anal dermatitis were identified from a prospective office database. Treatment was with oral antibiotics according to the organism sensitivity. Additional concomitant anorectal disease was treated according to standard guidelines. Patients were compared with a control group, without eczema or erythema, for the presence of β-haemolysing Streptococci on perianal swab. Demographic and microbiological data were assessed and compared between and within treatment and control groups.
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Regenerative endodontic procedures are an alternative treatment for immature teeth with necrotic pulps. Typically, intracanal medicaments such as triple antibiotic paste (TAP) or double antibiotic paste (DAP) and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH](2)) are used for disinfection. However, their effect on human stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAPs) is unknown. We hypothesized that intracanal medicaments at high concentrations are toxic to SCAPs. To test this hypothesis, a cell culture assay was used.
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Clarithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate (A/C) are first line antibiotics used to treat uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). This study examined the efficacy of clarithromycin and A/C for the treatment of ARS relative to the patient's quality of life (QOL).
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4826 women with pPROM were randomly assigned 250 mg erythromycin (n=1197), 325 mg co-amoxiclav (250 mg amoxicillin plus 125 mg clavulanic acid; n=1212), both (n=1192), or placebo (n=1225) four times daily for 10 days or until delivery. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease, or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. Analysis was by intention to treat.
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Both groups of cancer patients experienced clinical and symptomatological remission regardless their malignancy, but BC patients earlier than MM patients.
50 children were identified (age range three months to 11 years). Eighty-six per cent of children received antibiotics. Fifty-two per cent of children had documented signs of AOM. Twenty-five of these children received antibiotics (22 in accordance with guidelines, three not in accordance with guidelines, antibiotic not documented in one case). Thirty-nine per cent of children received antibiotics inappropriately. In all cases, the antibiotic dosage was below the dose recommended in all guidelines.
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Ambulatory patients with CAP were identified at either the Children's Medical Center of Dallas, Texas or the Hospital del Niño of Panama City, Panama. Children 6 months to 15 years of age were enrolled and randomized to receive either AZM for 5 days or a 10 day course of either A-C or EE, for those younger or older than 5 years of age, respectively. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were identified by measuring acute and convalescent serum antibody titers and by performing nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs for culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.
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Nine patients (69.2%) with BC and 10 patients (76.9%) with MM progressed towards a complete clinical remission (CR) in a mean healing time of 183.3 days [SD: 113.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 95.95-207.7] and 372.0 days (SD: 308.0; 95% CI: 151.7-592.3) (P = 0.776), respectively. The clinical improvement was statistically significant (P = 0.0013 and P = 0.0014), as well as the assessment of pain (P = 0.0015 and P = 0.0015), in MM and BC group, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that just triggering events (P = 0.036) were found to be significant predictors of outcome of BRONJ healing.