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A total of 2189 staphylococcal strains at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (Iowa City, IA) were initially screened to determine the incidence of constitutive (29.8%) and potential inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance (11.3%). Staphylococcus haemolyticus and S. epidermidis (62.5% and 55.3%) showed the highest incidence of constitutive resistance. Staphylococcus hominis had the highest incidence of inducible resistance (40.6%), while S. aureus had the lowest rate for both resistance types. The overall ratio of constitutive-inducible MLS resistance was 4:1. Among strains initially speciated using the Vitek System GPI card, there was only a 69% species identification reproducibility, and 78% accuracy versus a reference identification method. A random sample of 105 Staphylococcus spp. isolates with discordant macrolide (erythromycin resistant) and lincosamide (clindamycin susceptible) susceptibility patterns were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents by using a reference broth microdilution method. All erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were also resistant to other 14-member macrolides and azithromycin, while all organisms remained susceptible to clindamycin, rifampin, vancomycin, and the streptogramin compounds (RP59500 and virginiamycin). Resistance to teicoplanin was identified among some oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus strains. Of 105 isolates, 65 (62%) showed inducible MLS resistance, 28 (27%) were noninducible, and 12 (11%) were either fully susceptible or resistant to the MLS drugs (Vitek System interpretation errors). MLS disk induction tests revealed two inducible resistance phenotypes: ML and MLS. Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest inducible resistance rate at 95% with an MLS-predominant pattern. In contrast, endemic S. haemolyticus isolates did not demonstrate inducible resistance that is, efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Increasing antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly to third-generation cephalosporins, has been reported in many countries. We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08). No resistance and stable minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for cefixime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. High-level resistance was found for ciprofloxacin (39.6%) and tetracycline (20.0%) but not for azithromycin; 16.3% of the isolates produced betalactamase. Thus, cephalosporins can still be used for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the study area. To avoid further increasing resistance to azithromycin, its usage should be limited to patients allergic to cephalosporins, or (in combination with cephalosporins) to patients for whom no susceptibility testing could be performed or those co-infected with chlamydiae.
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Of the 3529 children with respiratory tract infection, 1026 (29.07%) were MP-positive. There were cases of MP infection in all four seasons of the year but infection rates in summer and autumn were significantly higher than in spring and winter (P < 0.05). The infection rate in females was higher than in males (30.43% vs 28.32%; P > 0.05). The infection rate was negatively correlated with age in these children, and there were significant differences in the infection rate among all age groups (P < 0.05). For macrolide antibiotics suitable for children, the cultured MP developed the highest resistance to roxithromycin, followed by erythromycin, acetylspiramycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, with significant differences among them (P < 0.01).
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A previously well 12-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of headache, nausea, vomiting and left-sided weakness. He subsequently developed meningism, right abducens nerve palsy, persistent papilloedema and reduced visual acuity in association with a bilateral macular star, consistent with neuroretinitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination indicated chronic meningitis and serological testing confirmed recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, although PCR in CSF was negative. He was treated for aseptic meningitis with ceftriaxone, aciclovir, azithromycin and acetazolamide for intracranial hypertension, with gradual improvement in clinical condition and visual acuity over several weeks. This is the first report of M. pneumoniae chronic meningitis further complicated with bilateral neuroretinitis and intracranial hypertension. Evidence of central nervous system inflammation in the absence of direct infection suggests an immune-mediated pathophysiology. Although the use of macrolides with antibiotic and immunomodulatory activity might be beneficial, it was not possible to ascertain whether it influenced clinical recovery in this case.
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The phagocytic bactericidal activity of the polymononucler neutrophils (PMNs) that were collected from healthy volunteer with and without antibody against Bordetella pertussis was investigated. Furthermore, these activity against B. pertussis under observing penicillins or macrolides antibiotics was investigated. Although no efficacy to B. pertussis strain by the PMNs in serum without antibody, but the viable cells of B. pertussis decreased to 1/1,000 1 hr after incubation and was not detected after 4 hrs. In particular, the viable cells of B. pertussis by the PMNs in serum with antibody was markedly reduced when azithromycin was present. These results suggests that the synergistic action of macrolide antibiotics and antibody-mediated phagocytic bactericidal activity on B. pertussis may have clinical relevance.
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Azithromycin (a macrolide-like antibiotic) has antimalarial effects in vitro and in animal models. In the course of a randomised trial of trachoma control we examined the effects of azithromycin on parasite and spleen rates in the population aged 5-14 years from eight villages in the Farafenni study area in The Gambia, West Africa. The entire population of four treatment villages received three doses of azithromycin 20 mg/kg weekly (days 1, 8, and 15) and four control villages received daily tetracycline eye ointment topically (days 1-42). Among 226 children studied before treatment and at day 28, azithromycin reduced the proportions with Plasmodium falciparum parasites (rate ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.71; p < 0.0001), with palpable spleens (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.36-0.70; p < 0.0001), with febrile parasitaemia (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.75; p < 0.01), and with P malariae infection (p < 0.001). This effect was related more to resolution of parasitaemia than to prevention of new infections.
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Interactions in the bio-inorganic systems of the copper ions and azalide (azithromycin) were analyzed by spectroscopic methods (atom-absorption spectroscopy, IR and UV spectrometry in the visible spectrum) and electrochemical methods (potentiometry). The system samples within molar ratios of the metal ion and ligand of 10:1 to 1:10 and wide pH ranges were tested. Formation of a compound consisting of the metal ion and ligand at a ratio of 1:1 was detected. The experimental data showed that the product of the compound solubility equaled 9.8.10(-14) (pH 7.0, 0.1 KNO3).
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Telithromycin has shown high in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae, including those strains that are macrolide susceptible and resistant as well as M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae. This study has also demonstrated that there is no cross-resistance between erythromycin and telithromycin. The impact of 5% CO(2) on susceptibility testing should be investigated further before providing definite guidelines on telithromycin susceptibility testing.
Azithromycin (AZM) is routinely recommended as a component of dual therapy for gonorrhea in combination with third-generation cephalosporins (3GC). In this study, we examined the prevalence of AZM-resistant (AZM(r)) Neisseria gonorrhoeae from July 2010 to February 2013, assessed the rate of concurrent cephalosporin resistance under the current treatment recommendations, and analyzed the clonal distribution of AZM(r) isolates in Ontario, Canada. Nineteen AZM(r) clinical isolates (one per patient; MIC, ≥2 μg/ml) were included in the study. Susceptibility profiles of these isolates to 11 antibiotics, molecular typing, characterization of macrolide resistance mechanisms, and penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) patterns were determined for all the isolates. Two groups were defined based on AZM(r) level; group A isolates displayed high-level resistance (MIC, ≥2,048 μg/ml) due to mutations (A2143G) in the four copies of the 23S rRNA rrl gene, and group B isolates had moderate resistance to AZM (MICs, 2 to 8 μg/ml, C2599T mutation in the rrl gene), with a subgroup belonging to sequence type 3158 (ST3158) (n = 8), which also showed reduced susceptibility to 3GC (MICs, 0.12 to 0.25 μg/ml, PBP2 pattern XXXIV). This AZM(r) phenotype was not observed in previous provincial surveillance in 2008 (the ST3158 clone was found, with AZM MICs of 0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml associated with mtrR mutations). We hypothesized that the AZM mutant prevention concentration (MPC) in the ST3158 subpopulation we found in 2008 was higher than the MPC in wild-type isolates (AZM MIC, ≤0.031 μg/ml), increasing the chances of additional selection of AZM(r) mutations. Full AZM resistance is now emerging in this clone together with reduced susceptibility to 3GC, threatening the future efficacy of these antibiotics as therapeutic options for treatment of gonorrhea.