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Since 2007, there has been a re-emergence of cholera outbreaks in northern Vietnam. To understand the molecular epidemiological relatedness and determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of responsible V. cholerae O1 outbreak strains, a representative collection of 100 V. cholerae O1 strains was characterized. V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients in northern Vietnam between 2007 and 2010 were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility and characterized by using phenotypic and genotypic tests, including PFGE analysis. Ten clinical V. cholerae O1 isolates from Bangladesh and Zimbabwe were included for comparison. The results revealed that all isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid, 29 % were resistant to tetracycline and 1 % were resistant to azithromycin. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin and 95 % were susceptible to azithromycin. MIC values did show reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and 63 % of the strains were intermediately resistant to tetracycline. The isolates expressed phenotypic traits of both serogroup O1 Ogawa and El Tor and harboured an rstR El Tor and ctxB classical biotype. Among the outbreak isolates, only a single PFGE pattern was observed throughout the study period. This study shows that multi-drug resistant V. cholerae altered El Tor producing classical CT strains are now predominant in northern Vietnam.
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A study published in 1998 linking MMR vaccine and autism was recently retracted by the Lancet because the data were falsified. The impressive reduction of invasive pneumococcal diseases with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is due to a more than 90% reduction in rates of infections due to vaccinal serotypes at the expense of a slight increase in non-vaccinal serotypes. Genes encoding resistance factors to several antibiotic classes were detected in 30000-year-old samples. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 was frequently detected in street water in New Dehli. Azithromycin decreased COPD exacerbations in a select group of patients with COPD at the cost of more frequent small decrements in hearing. Cranberry juice did not prevent recurrent urinary tract infections. Some patients with persistent symptoms after Lyme disease had higher levels of anti-Borrelia antibodies than cured patients.
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Premature birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in both high- and low-income countries. The causes of preterm labour are multiple but infection is important. We have previously described an unusually high incidence of preterm birth (20%) in an ultrasound-dated, rural, pregnant population in Southern Malawi with high burdens of infective morbidity. We have now studied the impact of routine prophylaxis with azithromycin as directly observed, single-dose therapy at two gestational windows to try to decrease the incidence of preterm birth.
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We examined the effect of azithromycin (AZM), a 15-membered azalide newly synthesized from erythromycin (EM), on serum sensitivity of 6 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Incubation for 48 h on agar with EM 12 micrograms/ml or AZM 1.6 micrograms/ml induced increased serum sensitivity in 2 of 6 strains (S-6, PA-103), but there were no changes in any strains with josamycin (JM) 12 micrograms/ml. Although EM 12 micrograms/ml induced increased serum sensitivity of S-6 after more than 36 h incubation, AZM 1.6 micrograms/ml induced increased serum sensitivity of this strain at 12 h incubation. AZM 0.8 microgram/ml (1/62.5 MIC) showed more potent activity to enhance serum sensitivity of S-6 than that of EM 12 micrograms/ml (1/8 MIC) after 48 h incubation. P. aeruginosa S-6 incubated with EM 12 micrograms/ml or AZM 1.6 micrograms/ml for 48 h was less hydrophobic than that of control bacteria, but there was little change in the hydrophobicity of the strain incubated with JM 12 micrograms/ml. These results show that AZM has more potent activity to enhance serum sensitivity of P. aeruginosa than that of EM. Since decrease of cell surface hydrophobicity of P. aeruginosa S-6 was correlated with increased serum sensitivity, EM and AZM may induce enhanced serum sensitivity by changing cell surface structure of P. aeruginosa.
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) occurs more often in early childhood than at almost any other age. Many microorganisms are associated with pneumonia, but individual pathogens are difficult to identify, which poses problems in antibiotic management. This article reviews the common as well as new, emerging pathogens, as well as the guidelines for management of pediatric CAP. Current guidelines for pediatric CAP continue to recommend the use of high-dose amoxicillin for bacterial CAP and azithromycin for suspected atypical CAP (usually caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae) in children.
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To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the organisms isolated from the nasopharynx of children who present with acute maxillary sinusitis (AMS) or maxillary sinusitis that recurred (RMS) after amoxicillin therapy.
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Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP) is a relatively rare disorder of unknown origin, mostly affecting young female adults. We here present the case of a 21-year-old male patient with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis. Skin examination revealed brownish, verrucous, hyperkeratotic, 2 to 5 mm papules, which formed confluent patches and plaques with a reticulate network on the interscapular area. The patient was initially treated with ketoconazole cream for two weeks without improvement. The disease can be rather persistent and resistant to topical therapy. Our case showed a satisfactory response to treatment with azithromycin. Although this treatment is known to be effective in some cases, the action mechanism of azithromycin on CRP is not fully understood.
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To observe the effect of Zhibai Dihuang Decoction (ZDD) on mRNA and protein expressions of transient receptor potential family vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) and transient receptor potential family vanilloid subtype 5 (TRPV5) in Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU)-infected rat semens and spermatogenic cells, and to explore the pathomechanism of UU-infected infertility and the intervention of ZDD.
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We sought to study antibiotic resistance and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from lower respiratory tracts of patients in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital. Hundred and seven strains of MRSA were isolated from the patients of nine wards. The tests for antibiotic resistance (Kirby-Bauer paper dispersion method), the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and Staphyloccoccal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) genes (PCR), and homology analysis (32 randomly selected MRSA strains; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) were carried out. All 107 strains were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid, but highly or completely resistant to tetracycline, gentamicin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin. All 107 strains were negative for PVL gene. Most of the strains (81.3%) were SCCmec III type, while the SCCmec II and IV types were less frequent (15.9 and 2.8%, respectively). No SCCmec I or V types were detected. The homology analysis test showed that 32 MRSA strains could be divided into 4 groups: type A (25 strains), type B (5 strains), type C (1 strain), and type D (1 strain). The type A included 3 subtypes: A1 (17 strains), A2 (1 strain), and A3 (7 strains). Further, most of the strains were isolated from the same wards or units (e.g., intensive care unit or tuberculosis wards) within a short period of time, indicating an outbreak status. In conclusion, the observed MRSA from low respiratory tracts from patients at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital were multiple-resistant, with the SCCmec III being the main documented genotype.
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CFU was found very prominent in spleen and joints and reduced in blood at 3 and 9 dpi. However, treatment with azithromycin and riboflavin completely eradicated the bacteria from blood and spleen. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1 were induced due to infection which were downregulated by treatment with azithromycin and riboflavin. Infected mice were also found to have altered antioxidant status, measured in terms of reduced glutathione and anti-oxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase.
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Sleep quality was "poor" (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5) in 53% of participants but was not related to age or severity of airflow obstruction. Quality of life scores were worse in "poor" sleepers than in "good" sleepers. Major classes of comorbid conditions, including psychiatric, neurologic, and musculoskeletal disease, were more prevalent in the "poor" sleepers. Unadjusted time to first exacerbation was shorter (190 versus 239 days) and exacerbation rate (1.7 versus 1.37 per year) was greater in the poor sleepers, but no differences were observed after adjusting for medications and comorbid conditions associated with poor sleep.