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Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome (OMS) is a rare movement disorder characterized by chaotic saccadic, high amplitude, multidirectional and involuntary eye movements usually associated with myoclonus affecting the head, trunk, limbs and signs of cerebellar ataxia, especially the inability to stand and walk. We report a case of a 68 years-old woman, with previous history of diabetes mellitus and systemic hypertension that was referred for evaluation due to headache and low fever for three days. One day after the admission, she developed spatial and temporal disorientation and high-fever (39 °C). On her fourth day in-hospital, while still disoriented, diffuse limb myoclonia and intermittent, multidirectional and chaotic eye movements were noticed. Sorological tests and sputum Mycoplasma real-time PCR were positive on seventh day in-hospital. Patient was treated with Azithromycin and IV Immunoglobulin for five days. On third day after treatment it was noticed significant improvement of ataxia and myoclonia. Completely recovery after macrolydes and IVIg treatment, absence of a malignant neoplasia and knowledge of this entity in pediatric population support that parainfectious OMS associated with M. pneumoniae infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of OMS in adults.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, which is often empirically treated with macrolides such as erythromycin and azithromycin. Recent studies have found a gradual increase in the numbers of macrolide-resistant strains due to mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. A2063G is the most common mutation, followed by A2064G. We developed a Cycleave PCR method for detecting macrolide-resistant strains of M. pneumoniae. With use of this method, the resistant strains can be quickly separated from the susceptible ones. In this work, via this method, both M. pneumoniae and resistance mutants were successfully identified from 101 clinical isolates as well as from 136 nasopharyngeal specimens. The findings of this study may allow clinicians to determine the treatment plan more rapidly and may provide a convenient method to conduct surveillance for genetic mutations conferring antibiotic resistance.
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Persistent chlamydiae were phenotypically resistant to azithromycin; the number of chlamydial inclusions on subpassage of progeny from persistent chlamydiae following removal of penicillin and recovery was essentially the same as from progeny from persistent chlamydiae following removal of penicillin and azithromycin and recovery. Neutrophils were attracted in vitro to persistently infected HEC-1B cells that had been exposed to penicillin and azithromycin.
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Continuing problems of antimicrobial resistance have prompted the initiation of several surveillance programs. Few, if any, of these programs focus on community-acquired respiratory tract infections seen in routine office-based practices. The Respiratory Surveillance Program (RESP; 1999-2000) in 674 community-based physician office practices in the United States determined the frequency of potential bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in patients diagnosed clinically with community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis throughout all 9 US census/geographic regions. Susceptibility to the penicillins (ampicillin, penicillin), oral cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin), tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was determined by reference methods. Patients were required to have a culturable focus of infection, and specimens were immediately sent to a reference laboratory. Among 22,689 total specimens (610 community-acquired pneumonia, 4,779 acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, 16,213 sinusitis, 1,087 other), H influenzae was the most commonly isolated organism from patients with community-acquired pneumonia (38%) and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (35%) in all nine geographic regions. S pneumoniae was isolated in 18% of community-acquired pneumonia cases, 13% of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis cases, and 11% of sinusitis cases. M catarrhalis was most commonly isolated from the nasopharynx of patients with sinusitis (29%). High-level resistance to penicillin (2 microg/mL or greater; 16% overall) and the macrolides (32% to 35%) among S pneumoniae varied both with site of infection and with geographic region. The greatest resistance was observed among isolates from the nasopharynx of patients with sinusitis and from patients from the East South Central or South Atlantic regions of the United States. Although the susceptibility of H influenzae and M catarrhalis to the tested antimicrobials did not vary with the type of infection, beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to ampicillin among H influenzae ranged from 15% in New England to 32% in the East South Central region. The fluoroquinolones were highly active against these cultured isolates from community-acquired respiratory tract infection patients, with >99% of all S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and M catarrhalis strains susceptible to gatifloxacin (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/mL) and levofloxacin (MIC(90), 2 microg/mL). The extended-spectrum fluoroquinolones appear well suited for community-acquired respiratory tract infection therapy, including pathogens other than pneumococcus, H influenzae, and M catarrhalis.
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A recent pilot study noted clinical benefit of macrolide therapy in the management of six lung transplant recipients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a condition previously regarded as irreversible.
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No difference was observed between the MICs and MBCs except for the tetracycline. Tetracycline-resistant strain MIC and MBC were > 64 micrograms/ml, although < 1% of the bacterial population showed resistance. For the other isolates, the MIC of tetracycline was < or = 0.25 microgram/ml. The antibiotics other than tetracycline were active in vitro against all strains.
Although both treatment strategies seemed to benefit the patients, the adjunctive use of 0.5% AZM as a controlled drug-delivery system enhanced the clinical and microbiologic results as shown by the intergroup comparison.
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Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (GO) remains a challenge in periodontics. Partial and total regressions of this GO have been reported after a short course of antibiotics.
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A total of 164 H. pylori-positive patients were randomised to either esomeprazole 20mg, levofloxacin 500 mg and azithromycin 500 mg once-daily (ELAz) or esomeprazole 20mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxycillin 1g twice-daily (ECA) for 1 week. H. pylori infection was defined at entry by histology and urea breath test; cure of infection was determined both by negative urea breath test and H. pylori stool antigens.
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The clinical features and outcome of macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease are not known.
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A total of 1,527 clinically significant outpatient isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were prospectively collected in 30 different U.S. medical centers between November 1994 and April 1995. Overall, 23.6% of strains were not susceptible to penicillin, with 14.1% intermediate and 9.5% high-level resistant. The frequencies of recovery of intermediate and high-level resistant strains varied considerably between different medical centers and in different geographic areas. In general, intermediate and high-level penicillin resistance was most common with isolates of S. pneumoniae recovered from pediatric patients. The in vitro activities of 22 other antimicrobial agents were assessed against this collection of isolates. Ampicillin was consistently 1 twofold dilution less active than penicillin. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were essentially equivalent to penicillin in activity. The rank order of activity for cephalosporins was cefotaxime = ceftriaxone > or = cefpodoxime > or = cefuroxime > cefprozil > or = cefixime > cefaclor = loracarbef > cefadroxil = cephalexin. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards [Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Sixth Information Supplement (M100-S6), 1995] has established MIC breakpoints for resistance (i.e., > or = 2 micrograms/ml) with three cephalosporins versus S. pneumoniae, namely, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefuroxime. The overall percentages of strains resistant to these three antimicrobial agents were 3, 5, and 12, respectively. The overall frequency of resistance was 10% with all three macrolides examined in this study, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin. The overall percentages of chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance were 4.3, 7.5, and 18, respectively. The resistance percentages among the cephalosporins, macrolides, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were consistently higher among penicillin-intermediate strains than among susceptible isolates and even higher still among organisms expressing high-level penicillin resistance. Multiply resistant strains represented 9.1% of the organisms examined in this study. Finally, rifampin resistance was uncommon (i.e., 0.5%), and vancomycin resistance was not detected. The quinopristin-dalfopristin combination was consistently active at concentrations of 0.25 to 4 micrograms/ml, but rates of resistance could not be determined in the absence of established interpretive criteria for MIC results.
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We conducted a cohort study of 1,106,757 pregnant women with live births using 2000-2007 Medicaid Analytic eXtract data. We used outpatient pharmacy records to identify medication dispensings and reported the proportion of pregnancies that were dispensed at least one prescription medication. Maternal age and race and ethnicity-stratified estimates were compared using prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).