The prevalence of female sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Japan is in the decreasing tendency after 2002, however it still actualizes as a social problem. Azithromycin, which is 15-member macrolide antimicrobial agent, has indication to treat the chlamydia STI in a single dose of 1 g. In April 2009, a single dose of 2 g of azithromycin extended release (ER) formulation, which is improved formulation by the viewpoint of pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics, was approved and has indications to treat not only chlamydial STI but also gonococcal STI. We considered the clinical application of azithromycin ER to treat female STI, including our new our own experiences because the clinical studies of azithromycin ER for STI had not been conducted. In conclusion, azithromycin ER was suggested theoretically becoming one of the choices of new treatment STI caused by not only chlamydia but also gonococcus, more clinical consideration to treat STI will be necessary in the future.
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A systematic review was performed to identify randomized, controlled, clinical trials designed to study the efficacy of adjunctive antimicrobial therapy with periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis in smokers. A search was carried out using the databases PubMed (using MeSH terms and free text), EMBASE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and a manual search of 4 periodontal journals, bibliographies, review articles, and consensus statements. The databases were searched from their earliest records until December 31, 2009. The inclusion criteria of studies were as follows: (1) randomized, controlled clinical studies of ≥6 months study duration; (2) application of a systemic or local adjunctive antimicrobial agent for the treatment of chronic periodontitis in current smokers; (3) measurement of clinical attachment level, probing depth, and bleeding on probing as primary outcomes; (4) no periodontal treatment or use of systemic antibiotics within 6 months of the start of the trial; and (5) publication in an English-language, peer-reviewed journal.
Retrospective chart review, susceptibility testing, molecular fingerprinting, and DNA sequence analyses of resistant MAC isolates.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of biologically diverse, ubiquitous and naturally multi-drug resistant bacteria with facultative pathogenicity. Recent data suggest that their clinical significance is increasing worldwide and that susceptible individuals may be at risk for infection via contaminated surfaces and aerosols. These individuals often have a predisposition for chronic respiratory diseases, e. g. bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis and these conditions frequently share the same unspecific signs and symptoms with NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). As a consequence, the diagnosis of NTM-PD, which is established based on clinical, radiological and microbiological criteria, is often delayed. Treating NTM-PD is more demanding than treating pulmonary tuberculosis as therapy is generally more tedious, toxic and expensive as well as being prone to failure. Patient and pathogen-specific factors guide the choice of an appropriate antimicrobial combination regimen, which should comply with national and international recommendations. Adverse events are common, should be anticipated and closely monitored. If infections with infrequently encountered mycobacterial species and severe or refractory disease occur, an interdisciplinary approach should be used, involving infectious disease specialists, experienced thoracic surgeons and referral to an NTM specialist center.
azimax 1500 mg
To investigate the effectiveness of long term, low dose azithromycin treatment for chronic cryptosporidiosis in patients with AIDS.
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Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) colonizes the human intestinal mucosa, produces Stx from phage, and causes the development of hemolytic-uremic syndrome via Stx-induced inflammatory cytokine production. Azithromycin exhibited strong in vitro activity against STEC without inducing Stx-converting phage, in marked contrast to norfloxacin. Azithromycin decreased the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6 production from Stx-treated human peripheral mononuclear cells or monocytes to a greater extent than did clarithromycin. In Stx-injected mice, azithromycin significantly suppressed Stx-induced TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 levels in serum and improved the outcome as assessed by survival rate. In the STEC oral infection experiment using immature mice immediately after weaning (weaned immature-mouse model), all mice died within 7 days postinfection. Azithromycin administration gave the mice 100% protection from killing, while ciprofloxacin administration gave them 67% protection. The data suggest that azithromycin (at least at higher concentrations) has a strong effect on Stx production by STEC and on the Stx-induced inflammatory host response and prevents death in mice. Azithromycin may have a beneficial effect on STEC-associated disease.
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Mutations which severely affect the function of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium (lpxA and firA mutations of lipid A synthesis and rfaE mutation of the lipopolysaccharide inner-core synthesis) were found to decrease the MICs of erythromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by factors of 32 to 512, 32 to 1,024, 64 to 512, and 16 to 64, respectively. The sensitization factors for three other hydrophobic antibiotics (rifampin, fusidic acid, and mupirocin) ranged from 16 to 300. The outer membrane permeability-increasing agents polymyxin B nonapeptide (3 micrograms/ml) and deacylpolymyxin B (1 microgram/ml) sensitized wild-type E. coli to azithromycin by factors of 10 and 30, respectively. Quantitatively very similar sensitization to the other macrolides took place. Polymyxin-resistant pmrA mutants of S. typhimurium displayed no cross-resistance to azithromycin. Proteus mirabilis mutants which were sensitized to polymyxin by a factor of > or = 300 to > or = 1,000 had a maximal two- to fourfold increase in sensitivity to azithromycin. These results indicate that azithromycin and the other new macrolides use the hydrophobic pathway across the outer membrane and that the intact outer membrane is an effective barrier against them. Furthermore, the results indicate that azithromycin, in contrast to polymyxin, does not effectively diffuse through the outer membrane by interacting electrostatically with the lipopolysaccharide.
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In this prospective study we compared the efficiency of azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate in treatment of acute sinusitis in children. Seventy patients were included in the age between 5 and 15 years. Beside ENT and pediatricians examination, nasal and throat smear on culture and antibiogram is taken from all the patients, as well as, X-ray of paranasal sinuses and laboratory findings, followed by check-up of nasal and throat smear and X-ray of paranasal sinuses. Azithromycin in single daily dose of 10 mg/kg during three days showed same efficiency as amoxicillin-clavulanate given three times per day in dose of 45 mg/kg during ten days.