Adolescent women enrolled in a longitudinal cohort had behavioral and sexually transmitted infection assessments performed every 3 months, including amplification tests for C. trachomatis, ompA genotyping, and interviews and diary entries to document sex partner-specific coitus and event-specific condom use. Repeated infections were classified as reinfection or treatment failure by use of an algorithm. All infections for which treatment outcomes were known were used to estimate the effectiveness of antibiotic use.
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There are no well-matched, controlled studies comparing azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of complicated scrub typhus. A retrospective propensity score-matched case-control study was performed for patients who presented with complicated scrub typhus and were treated with doxycycline or azithromycin between 2001 and 2011. Data on comorbidities, clinical manifestations, laboratory studies, treatments, and outcomes were extracted for analysis. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of the azithromycin-treated group (n=73) were compared to those of the doxycycline-treated group (n=108). Of 181 patients, 73 from each group were matched by propensity scores. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the matched groups. The treatment success and survival rates were not significantly different (89% [65/73 patients] versus 96% [70/73 patients] and 96% [70/73 patients] versus 96% [70/73 patients], respectively [P>0.05]). No difference was observed in the time to defervescence or length of hospital stay between the two groups (P>0.05). In complicated scrub typhus patients (n=181), multivariate analysis showed that only APACHE II score was an independent risk factor for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.56; P<0.001). Our data suggest that outcomes of azithromycin therapy are comparable to those of doxycycline therapy in patients with complicated scrub typhus.
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Doctors (general practice, gynaecology, family planning) and practice nurses who were delegates at selected meetings in reproductive health and community pharmacists attending pharmacy meetings.
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Thirty-five patients (3.4%) were positive: 80% of the positive patients were aged less than 25 years, 48.6% less than 20 years. All these patients were treated and post treatment controls were negative.
A CDSS interposed at the time of e-prescription nearly extinguished unwarranted use targeted antibiotics for ARI for four years. This intervention highlights a path toward sustainable antibiotics stewardship for outpatients with ARI.
Of the 3319 subjects, 825 patients experienced the primary outcome during the mean follow-up of 37 months. For the composite outcome, there was an increased hazard ratio (HR) for metabolic syndrome (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.22-1.61) (unadjusted) and for hs-CRP (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.38-1.85) (unadjusted). Both the metabolic syndrome and hs-CRP indicated, in a multivariable model including age and sex, an increased HR for the primary outcome (metabolic syndrome: HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.53; hs-CRP: HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30-1.76).
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Comparison of clinical efficacy and adverse effects of treatment with azithromycin and amoxicillin in children with solitary erythema migrans (EM).
An open randomized trial was conducted in 159 children (aged 1 to 8 years) with acute otitis media to compare the clinical efficacy of azithromycin (n = 105) and co-amoxiclav (n = 54). Azithromycin (10 mg/kg/day) was administered as a single dose for three days and co-amoxiclav was given tid for ten days at a dosage according to the manufacturer's instructions for the country. Of 103 evaluable azithromycin patients on day 3 to 5 after the start of therapy, 31 (30%) were considered cured, 67 (65%) improved and five (5%) failed compared with eight (15%) cured, 45 (83%) improved and one (2%) failed among the 54 evaluable co-amoxiclav treated patients. There was a higher number of azithromycin patients with complete resolution of symptoms at this first visit (P = 0.056). By day 10 to 12, clinical equivalence between the two treatment groups was observed with clinical cure in 86 (88%), improvement in 11 (11%) and failure in one (1%) of the 98 azithromycin patients, and in the 54 patients treated with co-amoxiclav, clinical cure was observed in 45 (83%), and improvement in nine (17%) patients. Both drugs were well tolerated and treatment related side-effects were reported in 8/105 (8%) azithromycin and 2/54 (4%) co-amoxiclav patients. In the azithromycin treatment group, these were predominantly mild to moderate gastrointestinal effects, whilst in the co-amoxiclav treatment group, both reports were of mild erythematous rash. One patient from each treatment group was withdrawn due to side-effects (azithromycin--diarrhoea and vomiting; co-amoxiclav--erythematous pruritic rash).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Trachomatous trichiasis frequently returns following surgery. Several factors may promote recurrence: preoperative disease severity, surgeon ability, surgical procedure, healing responses, and infection. This study investigates whether enhanced control of infection, both of Chlamydia trachomatis and other bacteria, with azithromycin can improve surgical outcome in a trachoma control programme.
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The immune response in a patient with acute babesiosis was determined by measurements of lymphocyte subpopulations, serum levels of cytokines, and adhesion molecules. The ratio of CD4+:CD8+ lymphocytes was reduced early in the infection, but returned to a normal value after treatment with azithromycin and quinine. Natural killer (NK) cells markedly increased in the acute phase but progressively decreased and to the normal range in the convalescent phase. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were highly elevated in the acute phase while normal levels of these mediators were observed one month after treatment. These results suggest that CD8+ T cells and NK cells may be involved in the host defense mechanisms against acute babesiosis.
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Total 253 patients were studied. All patients came from rural areas. More than 2/3rd were women and below 50 years of age each. High grade fever (90%), chills and rigors (68%), conjunctival suffusion (50%), body aches (43%), headache (41%), myalgias (37%), abdominal pain (21%), lymphadenopathy (17%), splenomegaly (17%), cough (16%), altered sensorium (16%), vomiting (15%), hepatomegaly (13%) were main presenting features. Eschar was present in 112 (44%) patients. Transaminitis (49%); and abnormal renal functions (31%) were predominant biochemical abnormalities. All patients were empirically treated with doxycycline/azithromycin. Thirteen (5%) patients died.