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To establish whether pantoprazole plus amoxycillin in association with either azithromycin or clarithromycin is useful in curing H. pylori infection in patients with a duodenal ulcer.
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Chlamydia trachomatis was suspected in 2.47% of the children, papillary hypertrophy being the most frequently seen clinical sign. Scarring changes secondary to trachoma were detected in 11.7% of the children. Only four cases (0.8%) were positive to the immunoassay test and 12 cases (2.27%) were positive by PCR. After treatment a second PCR was performed on positive children and they were negative of chlamydia DNA amplification. However, one child who was negative and received the treatment was positive in the second PCR assay.
Most antibiotics are known to be incapable of killing nongrowing or slowly growing bacteria with few exceptions. Bacterial cell division is inhibited during the postantibiotic phase (PA phase) after short exposure to antibiotics. Only scarce and conflicting data are available concerning the ability of antibiotics to kill bacteria in the PA phase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the killing effect of four different antibiotics on bacteria in the PA phase. A postantibiotic effect (PAE) was induced by exposing Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae to 10x MICs of benzylpenicillin, cefuroxime, sparfloxacin, and azithromycin. The bacteria were thereafter reexposed to a 10x MIC of the same antibiotic used for the induction of the PAE at the beginning of and after 2 and 4 h in the PA phase. Due to a very long PAE, the bacteria in PA phase induced by azithromycin were also exposed to 10x MICs after 6 and 8 h. A previously unexposed culture exposed to a 10x MIC was used as a control. The results seem to be dependent on both the antibiotic used and the bacterial species. The antibiotics exhibiting a fork bactericidal action gave significantly reduced killing of the bacteria in PA phase (cefuroxime with S. pyogenes, P < 0.01, and sparfloxacin with H. influenzae, P < 0.001), which was restored at 4 h for cefuroxime with S. pyogenes. There was a tendency to restoration of the bactericidal activity also with sparfloxacin and H. influenzae, but there was still a significant difference in killing between the control and the test bacteria in PA phase at 4 h. However, in the combinations with a lesser bactericidal effect (benzylpenicillin with S. pyogenes and sparfloxacin with S. pyogenes), there was no difference in killing between the control and the test bacteria in PA phase. Azithromycin induced long PAEs in both S. pyogenes and H. influenzae and exhibited a slower bactericidal action on both the control and the bacteria in PA phase especially at the end of the PAE, when the killing was almost bacteriostatic. Our findings in this study support the concept that a long interval (> 12 h) between doses of azithromycin, restoring full bactericidal action, may be beneficial to optimize efficacy of this drug but is not necessary for the other antibiotics evaluated, since the bactericidal effect seems to be restored already at 4 h.
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We analyzed data from 5 sites in the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network Study during the 2012-2013 influenza season. Subjects were outpatients aged ≥6 months with ARI defined by cough of ≤7 days' duration; all were tested for influenza by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Medical history and prescription information were collected by medical and pharmacy records. Four sites collected prescribing data on 3 common antibiotics (amoxicillin-clavulanate, amoxicillin, and azithromycin).
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Twelve patients were enrolled; 11 were included in the analysis. Owing to randomization, most patients received the azithromycin first, which was fairly well tolerated. PFTs did not change significantly during either study phase and PFs appeared to remain stable during azithromycin therapy and throughout the subsequent control phase. Azithromycin significantly decreased the incidence of exacerbations compared with usual medications (5 vs 16; p = 0.019). Mean 24-hour sputum volume significantly decreased (15% [p = 0.005]) during the active treatment phase, and remained decreased during the control phase (p = 0.028). Subjectively, patients reported increased energy and quality of life while receiving treatment with azithromycin.
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Gingival overgrowth index decreased significantly in the azithromycin-containing toothpaste group (from 1.1+/-0.56 to 0.51+/-0.47, P<.001); however, in the control group, this decrease was not significant (P=.22). Bleeding on probing also decreased significantly in patients in the azithromycin-containing toothpaste group compared with controls (P=.001). When compared with baseline levels, trough levels of cyclosporine, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine did not change in either of the groups. Patients in the control group were more satisfied with the toothpaste than were patients in the test group (53 vs 38).
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Macrolide antibiotics are known for their efficacy in treating acute airway infections, but just as importantly, they are also effective anti-inflammatory agents. Their anti-inflammatory properties have been studied most thoroughly in chronic inflammatory airway diseases, particularly diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin inhibit chemotaxis and infiltration of neutrophils into the airway and, subsequently, decrease mucus secretion. Mucus formation, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic airway inflammation, is directly inhibited by macrolides and suppressed by decreased inflammation in the airway. The mechanisms of action for the anti-inflammatory properties of the macrolides are still being investigated, but they are clearly multifactorial. Macrolides inhibit the production of many proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, perhaps by suppressing the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB or activator protein-1. Inhibition of cytokine production has been seen in vitro and also in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which contains less IL-8 and fewer neutrophils after treatment with macrolides. Macrolides also inhibit formation of leukotriene B4, which attracts neutrophils, and inhibit the release of superoxide anion by neutrophils that may be present in the airway. An important aspect of inflammation is extravasation of neutrophils into the tissues. Macrolides block formation of adhesion molecules necessary for neutrophil migration. Together, these anti-inflammatory effects result in improved pulmonary functions and fewer airway infections. In patients with DPB, the anti-inflammatory effects lead to a significant increase in survival. Further work is needed to characterize the clinical benefits of macrolides in patients with other chronic inflammatory airway diseases.
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There is no known treatment for pulmonary cryptosporidiosis, a rare complication of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients. We report two cases of cryptosporidiosis which were unusual because (i) extracellular invasive forms of the parasite were found in the bronchoalveolar lavage and (ii) the outcome was favorable in one patient after treatment with azithromycin.
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The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs, applied in combination with blue light, against selected isolates of MRSA was investigated at 1/2-1/128 of its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in 24-well plates. The wells were exposed to blue light source at 460 nm and 250 mW for 1 h using a photon emitting diode. Samples were taken at different time intervals, and viable bacterial counts were determined. The double combinations of AgNPs and each of the antibiotics were assessed by the checkerboard method. The killing assay was used to test possible synergistic effects when blue light was further combined to AgNPs and each antibiotic at a time against selected isolates of MRSA.
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Data source was a Pharmacy Niš database. Antibiotics prescriptions were selected for the following diagnoses: H65-H75 (acute otitis media, mastoiditis), J01 (acute sinusitis), J02-J03 (tonsillopharyngitis), J12-J18 (community acquired pneumonia), J20 (acute bronchitis), J32 (chronic sinusitis), J42 (chronic bronchitis). Antibiotic consumption was expressed in defined daily dose/1000 ihhabitants/day.
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Azithromycin or doxycycline is recommended for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU); recent evidence suggests their efficacy has declined. We compared azithromycin and doxycycline in men with NGU, hypothesizing that azithromycin was more effective than doxycycline.
Drugs that can acceptably be switched from PoM status to P status include those that are used in the treatment of minor ailments or injuries, for health promotion or in palliative care.