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Forty-eight Brucella strains were collected from patients with acute brucellosis. Species identification was made based on the conventional methods. MIC of rifampin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, azithromycin and ceftriaxone was determined by E-test.
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Giving public water authorities another tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. Most of the methods used today detect such contamination by quantifying microbes occurring in feces in high enough densities that they can be measured easily. However, most of these microbes, for example E. coli, do not serve as specific markers for any one host species and many can have origins other than feces. As an alternative, chemicals shed in feces and urine might be used to detect human waste contamination of environmental waters. One potential chemical marker of human waste is the compound urobilin. Urobilin is one of the final by-products of hemoglobin breakdown. Urobilin is excreted in both the urine and feces from many mammals, particularly humans. Source waters from 21 sites in New England, Nevada, and Michigan were extracted using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS). As a marker of human waste, urobilin was detected in many of the source waters at concentrations ranging from not detectable to 300 ng L(-1). Besides urobilin, azithromycin, an antibiotic widely prescribed for human use only in the US, was also detected in many of these waters, with concentrations ranging from not detectable to 77 ng L(-1). This methodology, using both urobilin and azithromycin (or any other human-use pharmaceutical) could be used to give public water authorities a definitive method for tracing the sources of human waste contamination. The analysis and detection of urobilin in surface waters by HPLC-ES-MS has not been previously reported in the peer-reviewed literature.
The reciprocal relationship between chlamydial infection and ocular symptoms was proved at 21 patients (22%). Ninety% of patients showed positive anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA and/or IgM with positivity in 80%, including anti-LSP IgA and/or IgM antibodies. This finding was in correlation with the medium to strongly positive finding of anti-cHSP60 IgG. In two patients, this infection was confirmed by the positivity of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in peripheral leucocytes. The test group (100 healthy persons) showed 69% negative finding of anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies or only positive anamnestic antibodies (IgG) and 31% positive antibodies IgA or IgM without clinical sings.
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Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis is characterized by chronic wet or productive cough, recurrent exacerbations and irreversible bronchial dilatation. After antibiotics and vaccines became available and living standards in affluent countries improved, its resulting reduced prevalence meant bronchiectasis was considered an 'orphan disease'. This perception has changed recently with increasing use of CT scans to diagnose bronchiectasis, including in those with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or 'difficult to control' asthma, and adds to its already known importance in non-affluent countries and disadvantaged Indigenous communities. Following years of neglect, there is renewed interest in identifying the pathogenetic mechanisms of bronchiectasis, including the role of infection, and conducting clinical trials. This is providing much needed evidence to guide antimicrobial therapy, which has relied previously upon extrapolating treatments used in cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. While many knowledge gaps and management challenges remain, the future is improving for patients with bronchiectasis.
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Data on the effects of long-term treatment with azithromycin (AZM) on inflammatory markers in cystic fibrosis patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are scarce. So far there is no pharmacokinetic and clinical data on once-weekly dosage of AZM in CF patients.
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His dyspnea started on September 12, 2001 and progressed despite aggressive therapy with inhaled bronchodilator as well as oral and inhaled corticosteroids. At no time did he have any radiographic evidence of pulmonary disease. His forced vital capacity (FVC) decreased from 5.32 L in October 2001 to 2.86 L in January 2003. He underwent an open lung biopsy because of the persistent exertional dyspnea coupled with the loss of over 2 L of lung volume. The pathological findings were chronic bronchiolitis with focal obliterative bronchiolitis and rare non-necrotizing granuloma. Symptoms and pulmonary function improved after therapy with Azithromycin was added to his treatment.
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Azithromycin (AZM) has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), particularly those with chronic infection with P. aeruginosa (PA). To investigate mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of AZM in CF, we examined bacterial load, cytokine levels, and clearance of inflammatory cells in CF mice infected with mucoid PA and treated with AZM.
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Two Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Seattle and two isolates from Uruguay were resistant to erythromycin (MIC, 4 to 16 microg/ml) and had reduced susceptibility to azithromycin (MIC, 1 to 4 microg/ml) due to the presence of the self-mobile rRNA methylase gene(s) ermF or ermB and ermF. The two Seattle isolates and one isolate from Uruguay were multiresistant, carrying either the 25.2-MDa tetM-containing plasmid (Seattle) or a beta-lactamase plasmid (Uruguay). Sixteen commensal Neisseria isolates (10 Neisseria perflava-N. sicca, 2 N. flava, and 4 N. mucosa) for which erythromycin MICs were 4 to 16 microg/ml were shown to carry one or more known rRNA methylase genes, including ermB, ermC, and/or ermF. Many of these isolates also were multiresistant and carried the tetM gene. This is the first time that a complete transposon or a complete conjugative transposon carrying an antibiotic resistance gene has been described for the genus Neisseria.