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Compared with Denmark, the antibiotic prescription rate for children is substantially higher in British Columbia. In addition, there has been a significant increase in the use of macrolides, especially the second-generation agents, in British Columbia compared with the use in Denmark. Further studies are required to delineate reasons for antibiotic prescribing patterns in these 2 jurisdictions.
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most difficult types of cancer to treat because of its high mortality rate due to chemotherapy resistance. We previously reported that combined treatment with gefitinib (GEF) and clarithromycin (CAM) results in enhanced cytotoxicity of GEF along with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress loading in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. An epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) such as GEF induces autophagy in a pro-survival role, whereas CAM inhibits autophagy flux in various cell lines. Pronounced GEF-induced cytotoxicity therefore appears to depend on the efficacy of autophagy inhibition. In the present study, we compared the effect on autophagy inhibition among such macrolides as CAM, azithromycin (AZM), and EM900, a novel 12-membered non-antibiotic macrolide. We then assessed the enhanced GEF-induced cytotoxic effect on pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1. Autophagy flux analysis indicated that AZM is the most effective autophagy inhibitor of the three macrolides. CAM exhibits an inhibitory effect but less than AZM and EM900. Notably, the enhancing effect of GEF-induced cytotoxicity by combining macrolides correlated well with their efficient autophagy inhibition. However, this pronounced cytotoxicity was not due to upregulation of apoptosis induction, but was at least partially mediated through necroptosis. Our data suggest the possibility of using macrolides as 'chemosensitizers' for EGFR-TKI therapy in pancreatic cancer patients to enhance non-apoptotic tumor cell death induction.
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Testing for and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women deserves special attention. Treatment possibilities are limited because of potential risks for the developing fetus, and because effects can differ in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women, re-infection may be missed because of the intrinsic delicacy of contact-tracing during pregnancy and because pregnant women are more reluctant to take the prescribed medication in its full dose, if at all. However, the devastating effects of some of these genital infections far outweigh any potential adverse effects of treatment. Although active syphilis has become a rarity in most Western countries, it is still prevalent in South America, Africa and South-East Asia. Benzathine benzylpenicillin (2.4 million units once or, safer, twice 7 days apart) is the treatment of choice, although patients with syphilis of longer standing require 3 weekly injections as well as extensive investigation into whether there has been any damage due to tertiary syphilis. Despite declining rates of gonorrhea, the relative rate of penicillinase-producing strains is increasing, especially in South-East Asia. The recommended treatment is intramuscular ceftriaxone (125 or 250 mg) or oral cefixime 400 mg. Despite good safety records after accidental use, fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy. An alternative to a fluoroquinolone in pregnant women with combined gonorrhea and chlamydial infection is oral azithromycin 1 or 2 g. Azithromycin as a single 1 g dose is also preferable to a 7 day course of erythromycin 500 mg 4 times a day for patients with chlamydial infection. Eradication of Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with chancroid can also be achieved with these regimens or intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg. Trichomonas vaginalis, which is often seen as a co-infection, has been linked to an increased risk of preterm birth. Patients infected with this parasite should therefore received metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 7 days as earlier fears of teratogenesis in humans have not been confirmed by recent data. Bacterial vaginosis is also associated with preterm delivery in certain risk groups, such as women with a history of preterm birth or of low maternal weight. Such an association is yet to be convincingly proven in other women. The current advice is to treat only women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis who also present other risk factors for preterm delivery. The treatment of choice is oral metronidazole 1 g/day for 5 days. The possible reduction of preterm birth by vaginally applied metronidazole or clindamycin is still under investigation. In general, both test of cure and re-testing after several weeks are advisable in most pregnant patients with STDs, because partner notification and treatment are likely to be less efficient than outside pregnancy and the impact of inadequately treated or recurrent disease is greater because of the added risk to the fetus. Every diagnosis of an STD warrants a full screen for concomitant genital disease. Most ulcerative genital infections, as well as abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis, increase the sexual transmission efficiency of HIV, necessitating even more stringent screening for and treating of STD during pregnancy.
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The MIC ranges of the 6 antibiotics used against the Legionella isolates were as follows: 0.004-0.062 microg/mL (azithromycin), 0.002-0.5 microg/mL (ciprofloxacin), 0.004-0.5 microg/mL (clarithromycin), 0.12-4 microg/mL (clindamycin), 0.002-0.12 microg/mL (gatifloxacin), and 0.008-1 microg/mL (gemifloxacin).
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Among the options of treatment with ceftriaxone alone, azithromycin alone, both of these, or spectinomycin plus levofloxacin, 64% of physicians correctly preferred ceftriaxone plus azithromycin. Knowledge of the recommended dual therapy decreased with increasing years of practice, ranging from 74% among physicians with 3-9 years of practice to 57% among those practicing for ≥24 years (adjusted odds ratio, ORa, for ≥24 vs 3-9 years of practice, 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.70). Knowledge of dual therapy decreased with higher socioeconomic status of patients (ORa for high income vs poor/lower middle income patients, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.32-0.69). Physicians who pursued continuing medical education using journals, podcasts, and government health agencies were more likely to report dual therapy than those who did not use these sources (ORa, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.31-3.33).
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Retrospective case review. Cases were identified by a diagnostic laboratory, the attending clinicians were contacted and the medical records were reviewed. The Babesia sp. 18S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced.
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In order to characterize the delayed effect of clindamycin and macrolide antibiotics against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (E. R. Pfefferkorn and S. E. Borotz, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:31-37, 1994), we have carefully examined the replication of parasites as a function of time after drug addition. Intracellular tachyzoites treated with up to 20 microM clindamycin (> 1,000 times the 50% inhibitory concentration) exhibit doubling times indistinguishable from those of controls (approximately 7 h). Drug-treated parasites emerge from infected cells and establish parasitophorous vacuoles inside new host cells as efficiently as untreated controls, but replication within the second vacuole is dramatically slowed. Growth inhibition in the second vacuole does not require continued presence of drug, but it is dependent solely on the concentration and duration of drug treatment in the first (previous) vacuole. The susceptibility of intracellular parasites to nanomolar concentrations of clindamycin contrasts with that of extracellular tachyzoites, which are completely resistant to treatment, even through several cycles of subsequent intracellular replication. This peculiar phenotype, in which drug effects are observed only in the second infectious cycle, also characterizes azithromycin and chloramphenicol treatment, but not treatment with cycloheximide, tetracycline, or anisomycin. These findings provide new insights into the mode of clindamycin and macrolide action against T. gondii, although the relevant target for their action remains unknown.
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A total of 139 patients were included in the study and classified into two groups according to whether or not they received macrolide therapy during hospitalization. Data collected included demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics.