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A total of 314 SCI/D clinicians who prescribe antibiotics (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners).
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Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that is widely used in clinical medicine. Macrolide antibiotics such as clarithromycin specifically bind to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome thereby interfering with protein biosynthesis. A selected peptide sequence from our former study, composed of 19 amino acids, which was isolated from a phage display library because of its ability to bind clarithromycin, displayed significant similarity to a portion of the human_p8 protein. The recombinant p8 protein binds to biotinylated-clarithromycin immobilized on a streptavidin-coated sensor chip and the dissociation constant was determined. The binding of recombinant p8 protein to double-stranded DNA was inhibited by biotinylated-clarithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and azithromycin in gel mobility shift assay. Dechlorogriseofulvin, obtained from a natural product screening, also inhibited human p8 protein binding to DNA. This study illustrates the general utility of the phage display method in detecting protein-ligand interactions.
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Azithromycin (AZM), a new macrolide antibiotic, in fine granules and in capsules was studied for pharmacokinetic and clinical evaluation in the pediatric patients. Antibacterial activity of AZM against 43 clinical isolates: AZM exhibited slightly lower activity against Gram-positive bacteria and 2-8-fold higher activity against Gram-negative bacteria than erythromycin or clarithromycin. Plasma or urine samples were collected from eight patients receiving the drug in fine granular form, and two patients receiving it in capsules for the determination of drug levels. The elimination half-lives of AZM after administration at dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days were 50.0 and 51.2 hours for fine granules, and 41.5 hours for capsules. AUC0-infinity was 11.7 and 24.3 micrograms.hr/ml for fine granules, and 8.3 micrograms.hr/ml for capsules. The cumulative excretion rates up to 120 hours after the start of treatment were 8.24 and 13.84% for fine granules, and 3.83% for capsules. AZM was administered to 123 patients once daily at 3.7-20.0 mg/kg body weight over 3 to 5 days with reference to the standard dose of 10 mg/kg. The drug was used to treat patients with pharyngitis, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, pneumonia, mycoplasmal pneumonia, chlamydial pneumonia, otitis media, pertussis, intestinal infection, and SSTI. The effectiveness of AZM was evaluated in 109 cases. The drug was rated "excellent" in 65.1% of the patients and "good" in 29.4%, resulting in an efficacy rate of 94.5%. Furthermore, AZM eradicated 43 of 46 (93.5%) bacteria that had been identified before the treatment. Three patients complained of side effects of urticaria (1 case) and diarrhea (2 cases). Abnormal laboratory changes were reported as follows: decreased leukocyte (3 cases), increased eosinophil (5), increased platelet (2), increased eosinophil and platelet, elevated GPT (1), and elevated GOT and GPT (1). The abnormalities, however, were mild enough to raise no clinically significant problems. In conclusion, AZM in once daily regimen was effective and safe in treatment of pediatric infections.
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56 children (28 in high dose group and 28 in low dose group) were enrolled. 47 (24 and 23 children in low and high dose groups) completed 12months of follow up. There was no difference in clinical scores, FEV(1), pulmonary exacerbation rates between two groups at baseline, 6months and at 12months. Per protocol analysis revealed that pulmonary exacerbation increased after discontinuing AZM and there was significantly more increase after 12months of enrolment in children getting high dose azithromycin. There was no improvement in FEV(1) in either group at the end of treatment period. Children tolerated daily low as well as high dose AZM well for 6months. There was no significant side effect of azithromycin.
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An upward trend in resistance to ampicillin due to beta-lactamase production was demonstrated In Italy. According to PFGE results, clonal dissemination of ampicillin-resistant isolates does not occur. Imipenem may represent an appropriate alternative for treatment of H. influenzae invasive disease caused by ampicillin-resistant isolates when third-generation cephalosporins cannot be used.
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An increased anti-Cp antibody titre may be a predictor for further adverse cardiovascular events in post-MI patients. Taking a short course of azithromycin may lower this risk, possibly by acting against Cp.
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Both treatments were effective with a clinical and microbiologic cure of more than 80% of children on day 9. Azithromycin therapy provided a greater bacteriologic cure on day 3 than did tobramycin (P < 0.001) and eradicated bacteria that were defined as resistant, using classical antibiogram. No adverse effects were noted on the ocular surface.
Severe symptomatic fetal toxoplasmosis rarely occurs after the maternal primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii. We herein report our experience of fetal therapy of symptomatic toxoplasmosis using azithromycin. Ultrasound assessment at 23 weeks' gestation revealed fetal ascites, cardiac effusion, cardiomegaly, enlarged lateral ventricles and thickened placenta. Serum Toxoplasma gondii antibody titer was ×81,920. Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M was 2.4 index (normal, <0.8 index), and immunoglobulin G was ≥240 IU/mL (normal, <6 IU/mL). Maternal oral administration of azithromycin in addition to sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine and acetylspiramycin was conducted. Spontaneous vaginal delivery occurred at 32 weeks and a male infant weighing 2036 g was born. Hepatosplenomegaly, chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, ascites, and meningitis were confirmed after birth. The infant underwent therapy with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. It seems imperative to establish a new drug choice for fetal therapy of severe symptomatic toxoplasmosis in order to reduce the maternal and fetal risks of drug side-effects.
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Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Seven groups were contacted and provided additional data which were incorporated into the review.
Azithromycin concentrations were determined in plasma and mucus samples from 20 women with cervical chlamydial infection one, seven and fourteen days after a single oral 1.0 g dose.