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Efforts are needed to ensure patients receive clear, consistent information supporting safe medication use.
Serial serum amylase and lipase determinations were performed in ambulatory HIV-seropositive patients in whom pancreatitis was not suspected.
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Emphasis was placed on clinical studies of direct relevance to clinical practitioners.
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Urinary malakoplakia may pursue an aggressive clinical course with persistent infection, despite seemingly appropriate antibiotic therapy. The authors studied seven adult females with urinary malakoplakia. Specific immunocytochemical staining demonstrated intracellular Escherichia coli in malakoplakia tissue in four patients. In two of the four patients, the bacteria were present despite antibiotic-induced sterile urines at time of biopsy. Cessation of therapy consistently lead to recurrent bacteriuria in these patients. In one such patient, the intracellular bacilli were confirmed as E. coli by culture of crushed malakoplakia tissue and electron microscopic study; the organisms were a routine E. coli strain susceptible to multiple previously administered antibiotics. Only sequential treatment with bethanechol chloride and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, however, eliminated the infection; all three drugs are thought to be capable of enhancing intracellular killing of bacteria. Conventional antibiotic therapy failed to halt progression of disease in other malakoplakia patients. The data indicate that intracellular bacteria may serve as a reservoir of persistent/recurrent infection in urinary malakoplakia. Optimal therapy should include therapeutic agents that may control intracellular organisms.
Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections encountered and treated in outpatients. A set of guidelines published in 1999 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends trimethaprim-sulfamethoxazole as first-line therapy.
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Interest in Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS) has recently increased in part due to a growing awareness of the differences between squamous and glandular disease. The pathophysiology and epidemiology of squamous and glandular disease are different and recently it has been shown that the response of glandular gastric ulceration to monotherapy with omeprazole is poor. Given these differences it has been recommended that specific treatment guidelines be formulated for equine glandular disease and that adjunctive therapies be investigated. Along these lines it has been suggested that the addition of antimicrobials may enhance healing. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the addition of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine to omeprazole therapy would result in superior healing of naturally occurring equine glandular ulceration compared with omeprazole monotherapy.
We assessed 1,542 cases of which 769 were included (32% ineligible; 19% defaulted). The treatment failure rate was 15% at day 5 and relapse was 4% at day 14. Concurrent malaria diagnosis (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.47) and moderate malnutrition (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.26) were associated with treatment failure. The model demonstrated poor calibration and discrimination (c-statistic: 0.56).
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One hundred and sixteen adults with symptoms of acute urinary tract infection were randomly collected into four groups and given single-dose or seven-day treatment with trimethoprim or co-trimoxazole. Of the 105 patients who completed the study, bacterial urinary infection was present in 70 patients (67 per cent). The rates for symptomatic and bacterial cures were high and indistinguishable between the groups, and there was no difference in the rate of recurrence of urinary infection in the six weeks after treatment. Side effects were lower in the group receiving single-dose trimethoprim (P=0.09).
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Our data, the first generated for north-eastern Brazilian children, may be important for the development of an effective vaccine and for facilitation of an empirical choice of antibiotic treatment or prophylaxis for traveller's diarrhoea in the area studied.
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Ocular surface disease is an important predisposing factor for S. aureus keratitis, especially for MRSA infections. Advanced age and poor visual acuity at presentation are important prognostic indicators for poor visual outcome in S. aureus keratitis. Oxacillin resistance may not be a significant prognostic indicator.
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HIV/AIDS health care facilities in Uganda, Mozambique, Namibia and Haiti.