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From 1993 to 2011, 10 474 PNBs were performed in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (Rotterdam section). Prophylaxis originally consisted of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Beginning in 2008, it was changed to ciprofloxacin.
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The serum potassium concentration in the treatment group (mean +/- SD) was 3.89 +/- 0.46 mmol/L (95% CI, 3.79 to 3.99 mmol/L), and it increased by 1.21 mmol/L (CI, 1.09 to 1.32 mmol/L) 4.6 +/- 2.2 days after trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy was initiated. Blood urea nitrogen levels increased from 7.92 +/- 5.7 mmol/L (CI, 6.67 to 9.16 mmol/L) to 9.2 +/- 5.8 mmol/L (CI, 7.9 to 10.5 mmol/L), and serum creatinine levels increased from 102.5 +/- 49.5 mumol/L (CI, 91.4 to 113.6 mumol/L) to 126.1 +/- 70.7 mumol/L (CI, 110.3 to 141.9 mumol/L). Patients with a serum creatinine level of 106 mumol/L (1.2 mg/dL) or more developed a higher peak potassium concentration (5.37 +/- 0.59 mmol/L [CI, 5.15 to 5.59 mmol/L]) than patients with a serum creatinine level of less than 106 mumol/L (4.95 +/- 0.48 mmol/L [CI, 4.80 to 5.08 mmol/L]). Patients with diabetes had a slightly higher peak potassium concentration (5.14 +/- 0.45 mmol/L [CI, 4.93 to 5.39 mmol/L]) than did patients without diabetes (5.08 +/- 0.59 mmol/L [CI, 4.93 to 5.23 mmol/L]), but the difference was not statistically significant. The serum potassium concentration in the control group was 4.33 +/- 0.45 mmol/L (CI, 4.15 to 4.51 mmol/L), and it decreased nonsignificantly over 5 days of therapy.
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The present study was carried out to determine the age, sex incidence and clinical pattern of drug eruptions, to recognize offending drugs (self medication or prescribed), to evaluate mortality and morbidity associated with drugs, to educate the patients, and to avoid self-administration of drugs and re-administration of the offending drugs.
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Bacteremia was caused by Staphylococcus aureus (23%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%), Escherichia coli (16%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (14%) and others (31%). Groups were similar by age, race, HIV risk factors and CD4 count. The presence of an intravenous catheter was mildly predictive of the development of bacteremia [odds ratio (OR), 2.67; P = 0.024]. Type of PCP prophylaxis in cases and controls with CD4 < 200 x 10(6)/l included co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, TMP-SMX; 31 and 60%, respectively), dapsone (33 and 24%, respectively) and aerosolized pentamidine (27 and 13%, respectively). Use of TMP-SMX (but not dapsone or aerosolized pentamidine) was associated with the absence of bacteremia (OR, 0.28; P = 0.001). A similar protective effect was found when controlling for the presence of an intravenous catheter.
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In patients with AIDS who are receiving zidovudine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is more effective than aerosolized pentamidine in conventional doses for the prevention of recurrent pneumocystis infection.
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Among patients with Enterobacter sp or C. freundii bloodstream infections, those with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant or second or third-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains or those who required mechanical ventilation had an increased risk of mortality.
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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease with worldwide distribution and an estimated incidence of 0.36 cases per million. We report a case of a PAP coexisting with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The patient was treated with serial lobar lung lavages, GM-CSF, cotrimoxazole, and antituberculosis drugs. His PaO2 on room air improved from 45.7 to 63.8 torr and pulmonary functions normalized (FVC 81.2%, FEV1 95.3%, FEV1/FVC 91.8). A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed clearing of both lower lobes. Whole-lung lavage is used in the treatment of PAP, but it may worsen the hypoxemia and lead to hemodynamic instability during the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bronchoscopic serial lobar lung lavages in cases of PAP performed in India. This method can be performed in bronchoscopic suites having general anesthesia facilities without the requirement of special gadgets.
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Immunocompetent patients with a history of sulfonamide antimicrobial allergy who were being considered for therapy with celecoxib were prospectively enrolled. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim skin prick and intradermal testing and/or an in vitro lymphocyte toxicity assay were performed. If skin testing was negative, an oral challenge with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was performed. Oral challenges with celecoxib were administered to all patients.
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To conduct two economic analyses addressing whether to: routinely monitor HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinically or with laboratory tests; continue or stop cotrimoxazole prophylaxis when children become stabilized on ART.
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The efficacy of a long-term prophylaxis with Co-trimoxazole was studied in 18 girls with recurrent urinary tract infections. SEven patients had neither anatomical nor functional anomalies of the urinary tract. Eight patients had a vesico-ureteral reflux, and three patients a complex urinary problem. The following therapeutic plan was applied: administration of a low dose of Co-trimoxazole (TMP: 0,6-1 mg/kg) given as a single evening dose during 3 months followed by a 3-month period without treatment. The children were followed in this way during 2 years. Seven children had no reinfection from the start of the prophylaxis during the 2 years of observation. Nine children had a significant decrease of the number of reinfections during the Co-trimoxazole treatment periods. Two children without anatomical anomaly had early reinfections with Co-trimoxazole resistant germs. No side effects related to Co-trimoxazole have been observed, and the tolerance of treatment was excellent. Co-trimoxazole administered as a single evening low dose efficiently prevented the recurrence of urinary tract infections.
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Improved accuracy of clinical diagnosis, better utilization of imaging techniques and rational use of antimicrobial therapy.
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A 62-year-old woman was admitted with fever and bloody sputum. A mass shadow in the left S3 and obstruction of the left B3 were seen on a chest radiograph and CT. Obstructive pneumonia was suspected, and cefotiam and imipenem/cilastatin were administered. However, this treatment did not show adequate efficacy. Bronchoscopy demonstrated a yellowish-white polypoid lesion in the left B3, but histopathological findings with HE staining yielded no definite diagnosis. Subsequently, Nocardia asteroides was detected in sputum test. A sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination and minocycline were administered, and the clinical findings improved. Gram-positive microfilaments were confirmed retrospectively in the pathologic specimen, and a diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis was made.