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longitudinal observational cohort study.
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In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are unable to kill phagocytized catalase-positive bacteria. Therefore, patients with CGD are prone to infections and dependent on antimicrobial agents able to penetrate PMN membranes and to act intracellularly. Owing to their good lipid solubility, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and rifampicin passively diffuse the membrane. In contrast, fosfomycin is transported actively into the cell. In normal PMN, it reaches cellular-to-extracellular ratios of 1.83 after 15 min, in CGD-PMN 2.18 after 30 min. At concentrations between 16 and 200 mg/liter, fosfomycin was able to kill staphylococci surviving within CGD-PMN, thus compensating for the bactericidal deficiency in CGD. A combination of low concentrations of fosfomycin (8 mg/liter) plus rifampicin (0.06 mg/liter) was more effective at the intracellular level than either agent alone. Apart from a stimulation of PMN-chemiluminescence of yet unknown significance, the agent did not interfere with other neutrophil functions. Clinical investigations are indicated to study whether fosfomycin can be added to the small number of antibiotics useful in CGD.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae usually produces an infection limited to the respiratory tract and the organisms rarely invade the blood stream. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who, 2 months after an unsuccessful repair of a ventricular septal defect, developed septicaemia with non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae. The organism appeared resistant to penicillin in vitro and failed to respond to a course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to which it was susceptible in the laboratory. A cure was finally achieved using cephalothin and gentamicin, followed by an additional course of ampicillin and amoxicillin. Twelve previously recorded cases of diphtheritic sepsis and endocarditis are reviewed.
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Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. About 80% of PCM patients are present with its chronic form. The lungs are affected in most patients with the chronic form; however, pleural involvement has rarely been reported. We describe nine cases of PCM that presented with lung involvement and spontaneous pneumothorax. All patients, except one whose condition was not investigated, were smokers. PCM was diagnosed during the pneumothorax episode in three patients, and from 3 to 16 years before the pneumothorax episode in six patients. A total of six patients underwent chest drainage and one died as a direct result of the pneumothorax. We suggest that pneumothorax, although rare, should be considered in PCM patients who present with suddenly worsening dyspnoea. PCM should also be investigated in cases of pneumothorax in adult men from mycosis-endemic areas.
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Cerebral toxoplasmosis or toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis (hereafter referred to as TE) was one of the first opportunistic infections to be described in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected patients. Treatment of TE has been relatively successful in comparison to other opportunistic infections. Prior to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a median survival of over a year was reported for patients who could tolerate the toxicity of TE treatment. HAART is becoming increasingly widely available in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of HIV-infected patients live. Many patients in Africa are diagnosed with HIV only after developing opportunistic infections such as TE. Hence, the optimal management of opportunistic infections such as TE is important if the benefits of subsequently initiating HAART are to be seen.
Erysipelas is a bacterial infection of the dermis and hypodermis, mostly of streptococcal origin. Bullous erysipelas represents a severe form of the disease.
The clinical features of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) differ according to the predisposing factors responsible for immunosuppression. Although PCP in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been extensively described, its characteristics in non-AIDS patients, such as those with malignancies, are not thoroughly documented.
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Whipple's disease is a rare infectious disorder affecting mostly middle aged men. The causative organism, Tropheryma whipplei, recently has been cultivated and phylogenetically identified as an actinomycete. The rareness of the disease despite the ubiquitous occurence of T. whipplei presumably is related to a predisposing defect in cellular immunity. The diagnosis usually can be established by small bowel biopsy, but is frequently delayed due to protean clinical manifestations. The initiation of antibiotic treatment in most cases results in clinical remission, however, a significant number of patients is refractory to antimicrobial therapy or has a relapsing course.
To determine the microbiological profile of breast abscess and assess the antibiotic susceptibility of the causative agents.
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From April 2000 to March 2010, 19 pregnant women with brucellosis were evaluated, treated and followed up. Ten (53%) pregnant women had spontaneous abortions. Six of eleven (55%) women infected in the first trimester had a spontaneous abortion. After treatment, all subsequently became pregnant and gave birth to normal babies. Among 13 patients who received cotrimoxazole plus rifampin, only four (31%) aborted and nine mothers had normal term deliveries. Two patients with recurrent abortions had brucellosis and became pregnant and gave birth after treatment. The brucellosis screening program for pregnant women and those with spontaneous abortion is necessary in brucellosis endemic regions.
Basal body replication in the naked biflagellate green alga Spermatozopsis similis was analyzed using standard electron microscopy and immunogold localization of centrin, an ubiquitous centrosomal protein, and p210, a recently characterized basal apparatus component of S. similis. Fibrous disks representing probasal bodies appear at the proximal end of parental basal bodies at the end of interphase and development proceeds via a ring of nine singlet microtubules. Nascent basal bodies dock early to the plasma membrane but p210, usually present in basal body-membrane-linkers of S. similis, was already present on the cytosolic basal body precursors. In addition to the distal connecting fiber and the nuclear basal body connectors (NBBC) of the parental basal bodies, centrin was present on the fibrous probasal bodies, in a linker between probasal bodies and the basal apparatus, in the connecting fiber between nascent basal bodies and their corresponding parent, and, finally, a fiber linking the nascent basal bodies to the nucleus. This NBBC probably is present only in mitotic cells. During elongation a cartwheel of up to seven layers is formed, protruding from the proximal end of nascent basal bodies. Microtubules develop on the cartwheel indicating that it temporarily functions as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC). These microtubules and probably the cartwheels, touch the nuclear envelope at both sides of a nuclear projection. We propose that spindle assembly is initiated at these attachment sites. During metaphase, the spindle poles were close to thylakoid-free lobes of the chloroplast, and the basal bodies were not in the spindle axis. The role of nascent basal bodies during the initial steps of spindle assembly is discussed.