Earlier initiation of ART in South Africa will probably reduce morbidity and mortality, improve long-term survival, and be cost-effective. While awaiting trial results, treatment guidelines should be liberalized to allow initiation at CD4 counts less than 0.350 x 10(9) cells/L, earlier than is currently recommended.
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Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal diseases. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae in Semarang, Indonesia.
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The goal of this study was to assess how resistance to quinolones, fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole relates to the virulence potential and phylogenetic background of clinical Escherichia coli isolates.
In 23 alloHSCT recipients, 26 IPD episodes were identified. The cumulative incidence over 11 years was 2.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-3.15) and the incidence density 956 per 100,000 transplant years of follow-up (95% CI 580-1321). Multivariate risk factor analysis and backwards elimination showed a significant positive association between mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), hyposplenism/asplenia, and IPD, whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) was associated with lower odds of IPD cases. Of alloHSCT recipients with IPD, 38.5% required intensive care, and, of deaths documented in cases over the period of review, 30% were attributable to IPD. Serotypes causing IPD matched currently available vaccines in 15/22 (68.1%) episodes.
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In a double blind, randomized study, sulfamethoxazole was compared alone and in combination with trimethoprim as commonly used in therapeutic regimes for the treatment of uncomplicated acute urinary tract infections in out-patients. The cure of sulfamethoxazole alone was 92.2%, and for sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim 97.6%. The rate of side-effects for the former was 5%, for the latter 21.8%. If the failure rate plus the rate of occurrence of rash, which necessitated discontinuing the drug, are combined, it appears that 8.8% of the patients were at a disadvantage receiving sulfamethoxazole compared to 9.7% for the combination of sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. When considering the cure rate and rate of side-effects together, therefore, the position of sulfamethoxazole alone as a suitable drug in this type of infection is defended.
Twenty-three children with Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) have been treated with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (T-S) in a 4-year period. The children are classified in two main groups according to the extent of their disease. Group A includes 16 children with single system disease and group B, seven children with multisystem disease. All patients were treated for 4 weeks to 3 months. The results of treatment are evaluated in terms of response in individual organs involved. All children with single system disease had a good response to the drug. Children with multisystem disease had a good response to some organs but a poorer outcome for the lungs and for the blood. These patients did not respond even to conventional chemotherapy.
To describe the characteristics and TB treatment outcomes of the first cohorts of TB-HIV patients, and to assess programmatic outcomes.
To define the genetic characteristics and resistance mechanisms of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) exhibiting high-level fluoroquinolones resistance.
The increasing prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) poses a challenge for antimicrobial therapy of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). To determine whether another antimicrobial agent might enhance the activity of moxifloxacin against CA-MRSA, this study analysed its activity alone and in chequerboard combination with doxycycline, rifampicin, clindamycin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) and vancomycin against recent SSTI clinical isolates, and also characterized the isolates for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), agr groups, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SSCmec) types and delta-haemolysin production. For comparison, 25 strains of outpatient meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 24 strains of healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA and six historical strains of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) were included. It was found that 21/25 CA-MRSA strains tested were PVL-positive, SSCmec type 4 and agr type 1, whilst 4/25 were PVL-negative, SSCmec type 2 and agr type 2. Two of the agr type 2 strains were negative for delta-haemolysin but all other strains were positive. Moxifloxacin MIC50/90 values (microg ml(-1)) were 1/8 for CA-MRSA, 4/32 for HA-MRSA and 0.5 to