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During a 7-month period in 1978 to 1979, 31 patients and personnel at a Kentucky hospital were colonized or infected with a Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, methicillin, penicillin, and tetracycline. S. epidermidis with similar antibiotic resistance patterns had been isolated in this hospital in the year before the S. aureus outbreak. A 32-megadalton R-plasmid, pUW3626, mediating resistance to penicillin and gentamicin, was present in these isolates and in coisolated S. epidermidis from the same outbreak. By colony hybridization, pUW3626 was homologous to gentamicin R-plasmids from staphylococci isolated in other geographic areas. Our studies suggest that the emergency of antibiotic resistance in S. Aureus may result from genetic transfer from S. epidermidis as well as from the interhospital spread of resistant staphylococci.
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A 17-month-old 7-kg (15.4-lb) Shih Tzu was evaluated because of progressive thoracic limb weakness of 3 months' duration.
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The current recommendation of 600 mg three times daily seems to be effective up to 75 kg but the dose should be raised to 900 mg three times daily thereafter. These assumptions should be prospectively confirmed.
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A post hoc analysis comparing the efficacy and cutaneous tolerability in 498 male and female patients with moderate to severe acne receiving clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/BP 3.75% gel, or vehicle for 12 weeks.
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To identify risk factors for the development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to C. difficile BI/NAP1/027 strain.
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Data from 1990 through 2001 were collected during 2 previous studies. Data from 2002 through 2003 were collected and compared with data from 1990 through 2001. All S aureus isolates were identified by a computer-assisted search of culture results, and the medical records were reviewed for all patients with MRSA infections.
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There were 76 clinically and 50 bacteriologically evaluable patients with 80 isolated pathogens. The demographic data were comparable in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference of clinical response at any time-point of treatment, with 97.8% favorable clinical response rate in piperacillin tazobactam group and 96.6% in clindamycin plus gentamicin group at endpoint. The bacteriological eradication rates were similar, with 97.7% in piperacillin/tazobactam group and 94.4% in clindamycin plus gentamicin group at pathogen level, and 96.7% in piperacillin/tazobactam group and 95.0% in clindamycin plus gentamicin group at patient level. By susceptibility tests, only 3 (4%) isolated pathogens were resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam, which was much superior to the use of piperacillin, clindamycin or gentamicin alone in antimicrobial activity. The piperacillin tazobactam-related adverse experiences included 1 (2.1%) urticaria and 2 (4.3%) diarrhea. However, there were no significant differences in the adverse experiences between these two groups.
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Twenty-one women had positive intrapartum vaginal GBS cultures at T(0). With T(0) colony counts standardized to 100%, subsequent percents-of-baseline fell rapidly and significantly by T(2) and fell further at each subsequent point, reaching 0% by T(6). For 12 women cultured for the full 8 hours, the decline in GBS was significant at p < 0.001.
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To identify the causative pathogens and evaluate the antibiotic sensitivity, resistance patterns, and virulence in a contemporary series of patients with Fournier's gangrene.
Almost all cases of Clostridium difficile-related pseudomembranous colitis are related to antimicrobial therapy. Virtually all antibacterial agents have been implicated, notable exceptions being vancomycin and parenterally administered aminoglycosides. The most prominent causes of colitis are ampicillin, clindamycin and various cephalosporins. In general, this complication is related to suppression of indigenous flora and overgrowth of C. difficile. In the case of ampicillin, however, C. difficile is always susceptible. Beta-lactamase production by elements of the bowel flora leads to destruction of ampicillin and subsequently to increased counts of C. difficile and colitis. Much less well-appreciated, and much less studied, is overgrowth and subsequent infection by other types of anaerobic bacteria. Superinfection by anaerobes may follow the use of "intestinal antiseptics" such as oral neomycin; indeed, that is the rationale for the current practice in the U.S. of combining erythromycin or tetracycline with the oral aminoglycoside. Superinfection with anaerobes may also follow systemic administration of various antimicrobial compounds. Such superinfections may involve any site in the body, although sepsis and intraabdominal infection have been noted most commonly; all major types of anaerobes have been involved. A wide variety of antimicrobial compounds has been implicated in predisposing to anaerobic infection.
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The influence of clindamycin on expression of B. fragilis endotoxins (LPS) and enterotoxin stimulated cell adhesion molecules: ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin on HMEC-1 (human microvascular endothelial cell line) was tested. Lipopolysaccharides from four Bacteroides fragilis strains: one nonenterotoxigenic (NTBF) and three enterotoxigenic (ETBF) were extracted by hot phenol-water method and purified. B. fragilis enterotoxin was prepared according to the method described by van Tassel et al. (1992). All bacterial preparations were used for stimulation at concentration 10 micrograms/ml. Clindamycin was used in concentration of 2 micrograms/ml. The influence of antimicrobial agent on the endotoxins and enterotoxin stimulation and expression of adhesion molecules was tested by ELISA, using monoclonal mouse anti-human antibodies (Genzyme, USA). Peroxidase-conjugated rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins (DAKO A/S Denmark) and OPD (Sigma USA) were used. The coloured reaction product was measured by reading the absorbance at 492 nm in SPECTRA II reader (SLT, Austria). It was observed that clindamycin influenced the expression of cell adhesion molecules on resting cell line. HMEC-1 cells stimulated with Bacteroides fragilis LPS preparations have suppressive effect on ICAM-1 expression. ICAM-1 expression was augmented when stimulated with Tox 1 and Tox 2 preparations. Clindamycin augmented the VCAM-1 expression in tests with all bacterial preparations. All used bacterial preparations of Bacteroides fragilis LPS and enterotoxin enhanced the expression of E-selectin with exception of LPS of NTBF strain.
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During 1989-2001, 947 patients with a history of suspected CADR were examined with skin tests including patch tests (PTs) (826 patients), skin prick tests (SPTs) (935 patients) and photopatch tests (12 patients). The occurrence of positive and negative test reactions to different drugs was correlated with clinical history. Drug provocation was carried out in 246 patients.