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Campylobacter spp were isolated from 512 of 1,422 pigs. A subset (n = 464) of the 512 isolates was available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The apparent prevalence of Campylobacter spp isolates from pigs on conventional farms (35.8%) and antimicrobial-free farms (36.4%) did not differ significantly. Resistances to azithromycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline were significantly higher on conventional farms (70.0%, 68.3%, and 74.5%, respectively) than antimicrobial-free farms (20.1%, 21.3%, and 48.8%, respectively). Resistances to azithromycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline declined as the number of years that a farm was antimicrobial-free increased.
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The intestinal microflora is an important cofactor in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation; and the epithelial cell barrier function is critical in providing protection against the stimulation of mucosal immune system by the microflora. In the present study, therapeutic role of the antibacterial drugs rifampicin and ciprofloxacine were investigated in comparison to spironolactone, an enzyme inducer, in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis of the rats. Drugs were administered for 14 days following induction of colitis. All drug treatments ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, colon length, and histology. Oxidative damage and neutrophil infiltration as well as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expressions that were increased during colitis, were decreased significantly. Rifampicin and ciprofloxacin were probably effective due to their antibacterial and immunomodulating properties. The multidrug resistence gene (MDR1) and its product p-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, findings of the P-gp expression were inconclusive but regarding previous studies, it can be suggested that the beneficial effects of rifampicin and spironolactone may be partly due to their action as a P-gp ligand. Spironolactone has been reported to supress the transcription of proinflamatory cytokines that are considered to be of importance in immunoinflammatory diseases. It is also a powerful pregnane X receptor (PXR) inducer; thus, inhibition of the expression of NF-κB and TNF-α, and amelioration of inflammation by spironolactone suggest that this may have been through the activation of PXR. However, our findings regarding PXR expression were inconclusive. Activation of PXR by spironolactone probably also contributed to the induction of P-gp, resulting in extrusion of noxious substances from the tissue.
Resistance to the quinolones nalidixic acid (NAL) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) and the occurrence of quinolone resistance determinants have been investigated in 300 non-typhoidal Salmonella from human origin, isolated in the years between 2004 and 2008, in 6 hospitals within Extremadura (Spain). Salmonella Enteritidis was the major serotype found among quinolone-resistant isolates, most of which were clustered by clonal analysis to a single clone, which presented D87 or S83 substitutions in GyrA. Eleven isolates presented the non-classical quinolone resistance phenotype (resistance to CIP and susceptibility to NAL), lacking mutations in the quinolone resistance determinant region of topoisomerase genes. Among them, one Salmonella Typhimurium isolate carried a qnrS1 gene in a low-molecular-weight plasmid, pQnrS1-HLR25, identical to plasmids previously found in the UK, Taiwan, and USA. The occurrence of this genetic element could represent a risk for the horizontal transmission of quinolone resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in the Iberian Peninsula.
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Stool samples were obtained at study entry from 81% of participating residents. Over half of the samples contained antibiotic-resistant isolates, with Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ciprofloxacin in 47%. Residents were prescribed an average of 2.16 antibiotic prescriptions per year [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90 to 2.46]. Antibiotics were less likely to be prescribed to residents from dual-registered homes. The incidence of AAD was 0.57 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.81) episodes per year among those residents who were prescribed antibiotics. AAD was more likely in residents who were prescribed co-amoxiclav than other antibiotics and in those residents who routinely used incontinence pads. AAD was less common in residents from residential homes.
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Eighteen PNAs were designed to bind to the translational initiation regions of cmeABC, spanning the ribosome-binding site (RBS) and the start codon of the cmeABC genes. Campylobacter jejuni was treated with CmeABC-specific PNAs (CmeABC-PNAs) at various concentrations and subjected to western blotting to measure changes in the level of CmeABC expression. The MICs of ciprofloxacin and erythromycin were measured to evaluate the impact of CmeABC knockdown on antibiotic susceptibility.
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Positive cultures were obtained in 100% of studied cases. Among the 57 strains observed, the most frequent were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (14%), and Proteus mirabilis (12%). The frequency of Gram-negative bacilli (enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative bacilli) was 67%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa presented the highest sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, and enterobacteriaceae exhibited the highest sensitivity to gentamicin. The strains of S. aureus and E. faecalis presented the highest sensitivity to imipenem and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively.
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Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis. One case of granulocytopenia, four of pancytopenia and fifteen of leucopenia worldwide have been reported. With the use of ciprofloxacin becoming more and more widespread, these two rare but fatal complications of ciprofloxacin should be borne in mind.
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A retrospective study was performed between 2005 and 2012. Records from the Microbiology Department were reviewed, and patients with a positive culture of synovial fluid or biopsy were selected for the study. Clinical charts were reviewed using a designed protocol.
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To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas matophilia (SMA) and the mechanisms of their drug resistance.
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Transference of resistance determinants by integrons is one of the important factors that can contribute to the increase in multi-resistant bacteria. We determined the prevalence and class of integrons among multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical specimens in Tabriz teaching hospitals. Firstly, susceptibility of 140 isolates to 13 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion method. Then, prevalence and class of integrons was detected in MDR strains by PCR-RFLP. One hundred five (75%) of total 140 isolates were uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Other pathotypes included were: diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (13; 9.3%), sepsis-associated E. coli (5; 3.6%) and newborn meningitis-associated E. coli (2; 1.4%). Antibiotic resistance patterns were as follows: amoxicillin 99.3%, gentamicin 33.6%, tetracycline 72.8%, ceftazidime 46.4%, co-trimoxazole 75%, imipenem 1.4%, ciprofloxacin 47.6%, norfloxacin 50.7%, cephalothin 77.8%, amikacin 12.1%, nitrofurantoin 12.9%, chloramphenicol 20.7% and nalidixic acid 60.7%. One hundred eighteen (84.2%) of tested isolates were multi-drug resistant. Prevalence of integrons was confirmed in 27.1% of MDR isolates. intI1 and intI2 were detected respectively in 22.05% and 5.08% of MDR strains. No intI3 was detected. Resistance to gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol was significantly associated with the presence of integrons. These results showed high resistance of E. coli to routine antibiotics, however, in consideration of low prevalence of integrons among these strains, we can conclude that antibiotic resistance genes in these strains presumably carried on elements other than integrons.
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Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners.