Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO(2). Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 microg/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC = 2.0 microg/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 microg/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of =1.0 microg/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 microg/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (>/=99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred.
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Six weeks after the start of treatment, 32 of the 35 patients were Helicobacter pylori-negative and their ulcers had all healed completely. Five of the 35 patients reported mild side effects (diarrhea, temporary nausea).
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In our setting systemic antibiotics comprise one of the most extensively used treatment groups in Primary Care. Among these, the use of macrolides has increased considerably in recent years and has shown variations in consumption according to geographic areas. This work was performed to quantify these variations.
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To investigate the influence of concomitant administration of roxithromycin on the plasma pharmacokinetics of lovastatin.
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Recent studies have demonstrated that macrolide antibiotics have anti-inflammatory as well as antibacterial effects. Therefore, macrolide antibiotics have been successfully used to treat patients with various inflammatory diseases. We evaluated the effect of macrolide antibiotics in 4 patients with prurigo pigmentosa who were treated with either 400 mg of clarithromycin or 300 mg of roxythromycin daily. Eruption and pruritus disappeared within a week in all the patients while those symptoms were unresponsive to other drugs. Although the mechanism of this effect remains unclear in patients with prurigo pigmentosa, macrolide antibiotics can be considered as an alternative treatment for prurigo pigmentosa.
Roxithromycin seems effective in reducing the bacterial burden of C. pneumoniae within atherosclerotic plaques, although extended follow-up is needed to determine whether antibiotic treatment benefits long-term patient outcome.
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The objective of the present study was to determine and characterize the relationship between the plasma concentration of roxithromycin, and its inhibitory effect on cytokine production, in order to predict its possible clinical relevance. Six healthy beagle dogs received a single intravenous dose of 20-mg roxithromycin per kg body weight. Blood samples were obtained at different time points. The plasma was analysed with respect to roxithromycin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The concentration-effect relationship was explored by modelling the data using two compartmental model and an indirect response model with an E(max) concentration-effect relationship. The estimated pharmacokinetic parameters (geometric mean) were as follows: V(c) = 2.59 l; k(10) = 0.08/h; k(12) = 0.26/h; k(21) = 0.40/h. The pharmacodynamic parameters (geometric mean) for the inhibitory effect on cytokine production induced by heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus (HKSA) were for TNF-alpha (k(in) = 1.42 microg/h; k(out) = 1.10 microg/h; EC(50) > 5.69 mg/l) and for IL-6 (k(in) = 2.31 microg/h; k(out) = 2.04 microg/h; EC(50) = 21.07 mg/l) production, respectively. The inhibitory effect of roxithromycin on production can be adequately described by the indirect response model with an E(max) concentration-effect relationship.
The in vitro activities of HMR 3647, erythromycin A, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, penicillin G, ampicillin, cefuroxime, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin were determined for 1179 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1438 Haemophilus influenzae, and 428 Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from respiratory tract specimens by 18 medical centers across Canada during 1997-1998. On a per weight basis, HMR 3647 was the most active agent tested against S. pneumoniae with MIC90s of < or = 0.12 microgram/mL for both penicillin susceptible and penicillin intermediate isolates and 0.25 microgram/mL for penicillin-resistant isolates. HMR 3647 was also highly active against M. catarrhalis (MIC90, < or = 0.12 microgram/mL), but less active against H. influenzae (MIC90, 4 micrograms/mL).
Gram-negative bacteria are the main pathogens in children from Guiyang with LRI, and E. coli and K. pneumoniae are common. The antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria varies with different strains of bacteria. A reasonable selection of antibiotics should be based on the antibiotic susceptibility test.
The in-vitro activities of the 14-membered macrolides erythromycin, dirithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, the 15-membered compound azithromycin and the 16-membered macrolides (16 MM) josamycin, spiramycin and midecamycin acetate (MOM) have been compared against staphylococci, enterococci and streptococci. Results have been analysed separately according to the sensitivity status of the tested strains to erythromycin, namely sensitive (S), inducibly resistant (IR) or constitutively resistant (CR). 14- and 15-membered macrolides were active only against S strains; the order of potency in vitro was clarithromycin = erythromycin greater than azithromycin = roxithromycin greater than dirithromycin. The 16 MM were slightly less active against S strains than were the 14- and 15-membered compounds, and inhibited most IR strains; MOM and josamycin were about twice as potent as spiramycin. IR and S Staphylococcus aureus strains were equally sensitive to 16 MM, while IR strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci were less sensitive than were S strains. All CR strains of S. aureus were resistant to 16 MM, as were most of the other CR strains. However, 5/21 CR coagulase-negative staphylococci and 2/20 CR enterococci tested were sensitive to 16 MM. The seven CR strains showing anomalous sensitivity to the 16 MM (five Staphylococcus haemolyticus and two enterococci) were only 'moderately resistant' to erythromycin (MIC 8-64 mg/L), while all the other CR strains were 'highly resistant' (MIC greater than 128 mg/L). These results indicate that it may be difficult to predict the sensitivity of Gram-positive cocci to 16 MM, and therefore individual sensitivity testing to specific compounds is essential.