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A repetitive-extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) subtyping method (DiversiLab) in conjunction with ribotyping, toxinotyping and antimicrobial-susceptibility testing was used to detect subtypes within Clostridium difficile ribotypes 027 and 078. Clinical isolates of ribotypes 027 (toxinotype III) (n = 30) and 078 (toxinotype V) (n = 23) were provided by health-care facilities across the Republic of Ireland over 2 months in 2006 and 1 month in 2009. Ribotype 027 isolates were significantly more related to each other (9 different subtype profiles) when compared to ribotype 078 isolates (14 different profiles) (P = 0.001; cut-off >90 % similarity). Almost half of ribotype 078 isolates (45.5 %) showed no relationship to each other. The clonality of ribotype 027 isolates suggests effective adaptation to the human niche, whereas the considerable genetic diversity within ribotype 078 isolates suggests that they may have originated from a variety of sources. Subtyping correlated well with antimicrobial susceptibility, in particular clindamycin susceptibility for ribotype 027, but diverse antimicrobial-susceptibility profiles were seen in ribotype 078 isolates, even within a single health-care facility. Between 2006 and 2009, a change in the predominant subtype of ribotype 027 was seen, with the recent clone representing half of all ribotype 027 isolates studied. This strain exhibited 89 % similarity to a rep-PCR profile of the North American NAP-1 strain.
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Pelvic inflammatory diseases are usually caused by sexually transmitted microorganisms, as are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, either alone or associated with endogenous flora of the lower genital tract, as with other gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic and aerobic bacteria [1, 2].
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MRSA harbouring mecA(LGA251) were found in isolates from a domestic dog, brown rats, a rabbit, a common seal, sheep and a chaffinch. All of the isolates were phenotypically MRSA, although this depended on which test was used; some isolates would be considered susceptible with certain assays. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid, rifampicin, kanamycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and mupirocin. Five multilocus sequence types were represented (2273, 130, 425, 1764 and 1245) and six spa types (t208, t6293, t742, t6594, t7914 and t843).
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Otitis media is a complex and multifactorial condition with four defined stages: myringitis, acute otitis media, secretory (serous) otitis media and chronic otitis media. Drugs utilized in its treatment are antihistamines, decongestants, mucolytic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids, vaccine therapy and antibiotics. The rationale for using antibiotics is that inflammation has been associated with the presence of virulent bacteria in all types of otitis media. In acute otitis media the major organisms, present are Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. In chronic otitis media these organisms, plus Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and anaerobic bacteria are all prevalent. The microbiological flora of the middle ear in secretory otitis media is almost identical with that in acute otitis media. Empirical therapy can be given in most instances of acute and serous otitis media. However, in cases of failure, in the immunocompromised and in instances of chronic otitis media, establishing the individual microbiology of the inflamed middle ear is very helpful. The growing resistance of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis to amoxycillin, due to beta-lactamase production, increases the risk of treatment failure of acute and serous otitis media. By adding a beta-lactamase inhibitor (clavulanic acid) to amoxycillin, or using second-generation cephalosporins, clearance can be achieved. Management of chronic otitis media requires surgical correction, drainage and coverage of anaerobic bacteria with agents such as amoxycillin plus clavulanic acid, or clindamycin plus antimicrobials against other pathogens such as Pseudomonas spp. where present.
This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Gangtok, Sikkim, India, and included clinically suspected cases of septicemia in neonates and infants.
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Previous antibiotic use resulted in a significantly increased rate of resistance only for the diagnosis of otitis externa (p = 0.01). No other factors were found to be clinically significant. The previous use of ototopical quinolones was shown to be correlated with a significant increase in quinolone resistance (p = 0.01). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated was shown to have 60% and 33% resistance rates to clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, respectively. The overall treatment failure rate was 36% but rose to 50% for infections involving highly resistant bacteria (p = 0.01). Treatment was changed based on culture results in 21% of cases.
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A systematic search was conducted by consulting PubMed (1966-2010), CINAHL (1982-2010), IPA (1970-2010), and the Cochrane CENTRAL databases. Clinical trials were searched for by the generic names of all antiseptics and disinfectants listed in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System under the code D08A. Clinical trials were considered eligible if the efficacy of antiseptics and disinfectants in the treatment of BV was assessed in comparison to placebo or standard antibiotic treatment with metronidazole or clindamycin and if diagnosis of BV relied on standard criteria such as Amsel's and Nugent's criteria.
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Most orofacial infections are of odontogenic origin, and are of a self-limiting nature, characterized by spontaneous drainage. The causal bacteria are generally saprophytes. On the other hand, invasive dental interventions give rise to transient bacteremia. When an oral lesion is contaminated by extrinsic bacteria, the required antibiotic treatment should be provided as soon as possible. In the case of pulpitis, such treatment is usually not indicated if the infection only reaches the pulp tissue or the immediately adjacent tissues. In the event of dental avulsion, local antibiotic application is advised, in addition to the provision of systemic antibiotics. The dental professional must know the severity of the infection and the general condition of the child in order to decide referral to a medical center. Prophylaxis is required in all immunocompromised patients, as well as in individuals with cardiac problems associated with endocarditis, vascular catheters or prostheses. Penicillin V associated to clavulanic acid and administered via the oral route is known to be effective against odontogenic infections. In the case of allergies to penicillin, an alternative drug is clindamycin. Most acute infections are resolved within 3-7 days. In recent years, the tendency is to reduce general antibiotic use for preventive or therapeutic purposes.
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This cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 one month to 14-year-old healthy children living in Kashan/Iran. The nasal specimens were cultured in blood agar medium for S. aureus. Positive cultures were evaluated for cephalothin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin and vancomycin susceptibility by the disc diffusion method and E-test. Risk factors for nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA were evaluated.
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As P. falciparum is a potentially life-threatening disease, reliable criteria for ICU admission should be defined and risk factors identified. Early ICU monitoring should be attempted, especially under the following conditions: (1) lack of clinical response to anti-malarial treatment within 48 h and/or (2) any signs of neurological disturbance (hypoglycaemia excluded). Prospective multicentre trials and guidelines for supportive intensive care are urgently needed.
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Objective There are many adverse reactions due to clindamycin, but kidney diseases (acute kidney injury, AKI) are uncommon. However, in recent years, the rate of clindamycin-induced kidney diseases has increased. We analyzed 50 patients with clindamycin-induced kidney diseases retrospectively, and investigated the characteristics of these kidney diseases in order to provide a reference for rational clinical drug use and to reduce drug-induced organ damage. Methods We investigated 50 patients diagnosed with clindamycin-induced kidney diseases retrospectively at the Department of Nephrology, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, from January 2009 to December 2013. The parameters included in our study were age, sex, clinical manifestations, efficacy and prognosis. Results All patients were diagnosed with clindamycin-induced kidney diseases within 48 hours of the application of clindamycin at 1.0-2.0 g/day. The patients included 29 women and 21 men. Most of the enrolled patients were 20-59 years old. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with AKI stage 3 upon admission. Thirty-three had episodes of gross hematuria, but fever, skin rash and eosinophilia were rare. Urine analysis revealed mild proteinuria and severe tubular dysfunction. In the majority of patients, AKI was severe and required renal replacement therapy, but renal function in all patients had recovered significantly two months after discharge. Conclusion Clindamycin-induced AKI is largely reversible and is associated with episodes of gross hematuria. Clinicians should use clindamycin rationally and reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.