The antimicrobial spectrum and in vitro potency of the most frequently prescribed orally administered cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin) and amoxicillin/clavulanate are reviewed. These beta-lactam agents have been widely used in the outpatient arena for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract and other mild-to-moderate infections. The data presented here were obtained from critical review articles on each of these compounds. Cephalexin and cefaclor were among the least potent and had the narrowest antimicrobial spectrums against the pathogens evaluated. In contrast, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, and cefuroxime were highly active against penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and retained some activity against penicillin-intermediate strains, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was the most active against S. pneumoniae, including most penicillin nonsusceptible strains. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefdinir were the most potent compounds against methicillin (oxacillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, whereas cefpodoxime was the most potent compound against Haemophilus influenzae. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime were also active against Moraxella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. In summary, orally administered "3rd-generation" or extended spectrum cephalosporins exhibited more balanced spectrums of activity against the principal bacterial pathogens responsible for outpatient respiratory tract and other infections when compared with other widely used oral cephalosporins of earlier generations or amoxicillin alone.
Two new plasmid encoded beta-lactamase enzymes produced by a strain of Escherichia coli and a strain of Citrobacter freundii isolated from calf faeces have been characterised. Both enzymes were similar to TEM-1 in terms of substrate and inhibition profiles and physical properties but differed from TEM-1 in being far less susceptible to the beta-lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid or tazobactam. In each case transfer of the plasmid E coli K12 rendered it clinically resistant to the combination of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid. The beta-lactamase from the E coli had an iso-electric point (pI) of 5.4 and was encoded on a plasmid of 95 Kbp which also mediated resistance to tetracycline, sulphonamides, apramycin, streptomycin and gentamicin. The beta-lactamase from the C freundii had a pI of 5.2 and was encoded on a 75 Kbp plasmid which also mediated resistance to trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, apramycin, gentamicin and tobramycin.
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A cross-sectional study encompassing general surgeons performing elective colorectal surgery was performed. Questionnaires were distributed to 144 surgeons (national, academic and private health care). Questions pertaining to the type, timing and duration of antibiotic administration were asked. The prevalence of wound infection audit rate and whether or not there were specific guidelines related to antibiotic administration were also determined.
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In this multinational population of patients with acute bacterial sinusitis, clarithromycin ER was comparable, and for selected measures superior, to amoxicillin/clavulanate based on clinical, bacteriological, and radiological responses as well as quality of life measures, satisfaction with antibiotic therapy, and health care resource utilization.
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The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of Moraxella catarrhalis in patients with respiratory tract infections. Overall 514 specimens including 370 throat swabs and 114 sputum specimens were examined. The 78 strains isolated basing on morphological and biochemical characteristics were classified as Moraxella catarrhalis. The sensitivity of the strains to antibiotics was also estimated. The frequency of M. catarrhalis isolation from the throat swabs (15.9%) was higher than from the sputum (13.2%). Selected 25 specimens of sputum were tested simultaneously by quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative method was more sensitive (84% positive findings) than qualitative method (60% positive findings). Resistance to ampicillin was found in 52 (66.7%) strains of M. catarrhalis determined mainly by beta-lactamase production (over 70% strains were producers of beta-lactamase). All strains were sensitive to ofloxacin and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid combination. The frequency of M. catarrhalis isolation was higher in autumn-winter period than in summer (May-September). We conclude that M. catarrhalis, beside Streptococcus pyogenes (20.2%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.1%), are the most frequently isolated bacteria in patients with respiratory tract infections.
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A Chlamydia infection was found responsible, by culture or serology, in one out of 2 cases; only one germ was found in 14 cases, 2 germs in 21 cases and none in 7 cases. The association A + T was effective in all moderate cases at 8 and 30 days; in severe forms, there was a failure at 8 days and 4 others at 30 days or 17%. Augmentin alone per os caused 5 failures out of 10 cases at 8 days. No new failure was observed after several months in cases cured at 30 days. The association A + T may be recommended as very effective in moderate forms of acute salpingitis.
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Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in such patients. Although bacterial and/or viral infections are considered as the major precipitating factor, the antibiotic strategy in this setting is unclear. The potential benefit of routine antibiotic therapy in the absence of evidence of overt infection remains controversial, and has not been adequately studied in patients admitted to the ICU. To assess the benefit (or lack thereof) of routine early systemic antibiotic therapy in patients with COLD admitted to the ICU.
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A prospective, randomized, open study was performed in 199 patients at the Leyenburg Hospital comparing amoxycillin/clavulanate (AMX/CL) with cefuroxime plus metronidazole (CR/MN) in the prophylaxis of infection following gynaecological surgery. AMX/CL was given as a single dose of 2200 mg i.v. at the start of the operation. CR/MN, 750/500 mg i.v. was administered 3 times within 24 h, beginning at the start of the operation. The study group consisted of patients undergoing either a vaginal hysterectomy, a vaginal hysterectomy with cysto/rectocele repair or a secondary caesarean section. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics, duration of surgery or anaesthetic method between the two groups. Postoperatively, 10.6% of patients developed a urinary tract infection, and febrile temperatures were found in 9.0% of patients. There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups. Other complications were found in less than 1% of the study population, equally distributed between the two regimens. In this study there was a low overall percentage of infection after gynaecological surgery. AMX/CL was as effective as CR/MN as a perioperative prophylactic treatment and has the dual advantage of a single dose and lower cost.
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To compare the effect of 2 different antimicrobial agents in the treatment of secretory otitis media (SOM).