Between May and December 2005, 64 multidrug-resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were detected from patients admitted to Uppsala University Hospital. This represented a dramatic increase in ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae compared to previous years. To investigate the epidemiology and to characterize the resistance mechanisms of the isolates, a study was initiated. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by means of the Etest and the disc diffusion method. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was identified by clavulanic acid synergy test and confirmed with PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing. DNA profiles of the isolates were examined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All isolates were resistant or exhibited reduced susceptibility to cefadroxil, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. They produced ESBL of the CTX-M-15 type, and the involvement of a single K. pneumoniae clone was shown. This is the first major clonal outbreak of multiresistant ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in Scandinavia. The outbreak demonstrates the epidemic potential of enterobacteria containing ESBLs of the CTX-M type, even in a country with a relatively low selective pressure and a low prevalence of multiresistant bacteria.
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Pharmacological and antimicrobial properties of cefadroxil, a new cephalosporin antibiotic, were compared with cephalexin. Absorption and excretion were studied in 20 healthy men. Peak concentrations of the drugs in serum were similar after ingestion of single 500-mg tablets. The concentration of cefadroxil in serum was more sustained than that of cephalexin. Levels of cefadroxil in serum after a dose of 1,000 mg were approximately twice those after a 500-mg dose through 6 h. Each drug administered in a dose of 500 mg every 6 h for 24 h resulted in concentrations in serum that were similar to a single dose without accumulation. Ninety-three percent of the cefadroxil and 85% of the cephalexin were excreted in urine after ingestions of single 500-mg tablets. The urine concentration of cefadroxil was more sustained than cephalexin. Minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations for clinical isolates were comparable with each drug. Cefadroxil compares favorably with cephalexin in this study. Sustained levels of cefadroxil in serum and urine suggest that this drug may be given at less frequent intervals than cephalexin.
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We describe a young woman who had had treatment-refractory complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) for 6 years before receiving antibiotic treatment with cefadroxil (a cephalosporin derivative) for a minor infection. Cefadroxil reduced the patient's pain and motor dysfunction (dystonia and impaired voluntary movement) within days; the pain and motor disorder returned when cefadroxil was discontinued; and both again abated when cefadroxil was re-instituted. The patient has now had symptom relief for more than 3 years on continuing cefadroxil therapy. We discuss this case in the context of previous reports of antibiotic treatment relieving neuropathic pain in experimental animals.
Cats with clinical signs of skin and soft tissue infection were randomly allocated to receive a single dose of cefovecin (8 mg/kg [3.6 mg/lb], SC) followed by placebo drops administered orally once daily for 14 days or 1 SC placebo injection followed by cefadroxil (22 mg/kg [10 mg/lb], PO, once daily for 14 days). Only one 14-day treatment course was permitted.
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The binding of some cephalosporins to human serum albumin was studied using probes for the so-called I, II, bilirubin and fatty acids binding sites. The results showed that cephradine and cefsulodin bind to site II, cefaclor, cefamandole, cefsulodin, cephaloglycin and cefadroxil bind to the bilirubin binding site, while cefaclor does it to the fatty acid binding site. No binding of these cephalosporins to site I of albumin was found. The binding produced a perturbation on the N-B equilibrium of albumin, stabilizing the N conformational form, which suggests that the N form of albumin has more affinity with the cephalosporins than the B form. This finding gives support to the assumption that the binding of cephalosporins to site II, bilirubin and fatty acids binding sites affects the N-B transition of albumin.
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The susceptibility of 24 strains of Eikenella corrodens was determined, by the agar dilution technique, to 10 cephalosporins, as well as to clindamycin, penicillin and dicloxacillin. All strains were uniformly very susceptible to penicillin G and cefoxitin and resistant to clindamycin and dicloxacillin. Cefazolin showed good activity. Cephalexin, cephradine, and cefadroxil showed poor activity, and cefamandole's activity was relatively poor. Cephalothin, cephapirin, cefaclor, and cephaloridine showed moderate activity, with some strains relatively resistant.
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Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming increasingly prevalent. Linezolid is effective and well-tolerated in the treatment of adults with MRSA infections.
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Co-administration of piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum L. enhanced bioavailability of beta lactam antibiotics, amoxycillin trihydrate and cefotaxime sodium significantly in rats. The improved bioavailability is reflected in various pharmacokinetic parameters viz. tmax, Cmax, t(1/2) and AUC, of these antibiotics. The increased bioavailability could be attributed to the effect of piperine on microsomal metabolising enzymes or enzymes system.
Treatment with 3-day oral regimens of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 160 mg/800 mg twice daily, macrocrystalline nitrofurantoin, 100 mg four times daily, cefadroxil, 500 mg twice daily, or amoxicillin, 500 mg three times daily.
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A 15-year-old dog was evaluated for a nonresponsive generalized pruritic condition of 5 months duration. Routine diagnostic testing, including intradermal testing with 63 inhaled allergens and the feeding of a home-cooked hypoallergenic diet, failed to define the cause of the pruritus. An intradermal skin test with a staphylococcal cell wall/toxoid mixture and a skin biopsy of the skin test site suggested that the dog had a bacterial hypersensitivity. Antibiotic therapy eliminated the pruritus and the dog's pruritus was successfully managed for 3 years with the combined use of subtherapeutic dosages of antibiotics and a commercial staphylococcal vaccine.
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The study was conducted in 3 retail pharmacies in Sarjapur area, Bangalore East. The duration of the study was for a period of 10 days from August 1st to August 10th 2014. The common complaints for which the patients frequented the pharmacies were observed and recorded .The investigator personally interviewed the patients between 6pm to 9pm, near the respective pharmacies. During this study period around 216 patients visited pharmacies without prescription. The drugs supplied to 216 patients by private pharmacies without prescription was recorded. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel.
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There are only slight differences between the geometrical means of minimum inhibitory concentrations of (6R,7R)-7-[(R)-2-amino-2-2(p-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamido]-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid (cefadroxil, Bidocef) and cefalexin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria freshly isolated from clinical material. Enterococci are more susceptible to cefadroxil. Considering the different break point, cefadroxil is on the whole more effective than cefalexin, in particular so against Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Escherichia coli. With the aid of the described regression analysis a meaningful interpretation of the results of the cefadroxil agar diffusion test is possible.