Patients admitted from NHs are at increased risk of development of CDAD; receiving cefotaxime or cefuroxime axetil (oral form), being elderly and being female are risk factors for the development of CDAD. Treatment of CDAD with oral metronidazole or oral vancomycin gives rise to similar response times and efficacy.
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The aim of this multicentric, randomized, double blind study was to demonstrate that a 4-day treatment with pristinamycin 1 g bid was as efficient as a 5-day treatment with cefuroxime axetil 250 mg bid in adults presenting with an acute maxillary sinusitis.
[corrected] After group presentations and review of background materials, subgroup chairs prepared draft responses to the five questions, discussed the responses as a group and edited those responses [corrected].
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Search of PubMed and Scopus for articles on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of tick-borne infections published in English from January 2005 through December 2015.
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The approaches to diagnosing and treating Lyme disease (LD) have been improved and refined as a result of basic and clinical research, and considerable practical experience. In addition, there have been recent studies that have allowed improvements in the ability to prevent infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. This paper will review the relevant literature and address recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of LD. Issues specifically related to the management of children will be identified. Controversies regarding treatment approaches will be examined in some detail. Understanding the clinical manifestations, or stage, of LD is crucial when approaching both diagnosis and treatment. Early localized disease is best diagnosed by recognizing the characteristic skin lesion, erythema migrans. Early disease will frequently, but not always, be accompanied by a detectable antibody response, particularly IgM antibody to the spirochete. Late disease, chiefly arthritis, is generally associated with high levels of IgG antibody. Western blot technology allows confirmation of enzyme immunoassay results and is especially useful when the latter is in the low or equivocal range. Early localized disease responds well to oral antibacterial therapy. Early disseminated disease, often associated with neurologic findings, may require parenteral therapy. The arthritis associated with LD frequently responds to oral antibacterials, but some refractory cases may require intravenous therapy, and occasionally surgery. Doxycycline is the oral antibacterial of choice, while amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil are alternatives that may be preferred in young children. Owing to its long half-life and once daily dose administration, intravenous ceftriaxone has become the accepted standard for parenteral therapy. Tick avoidance has long been the mainstay for preventing LD. Antibacterial prophylaxis, using doxycycline, for tick bites has been shown to be an effective approach to prevention, but its relevance to pediatrics is uncertain. Vaccines designed to prevent infection have also been developed.
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A total of 88 patients (93%) completed follow-up. Patients recorded their symptoms, work assessment, and compliance during the 3-week treatment phase. Patients receiving fluticasone achieved a significantly higher rate of clinical success than patients receiving placebo (93.5% vs 73.9%; P =.009). Patients treated with fluticasone improved significantly more rapidly (median of 6.0 days to clinical success) vs patients in the placebo group (median of 9.5 days; P =.01).
Antimicrobial resistance among organisms that cause acute otitis media (AOM) and new approaches in the prevention and treatment of AOM are discussed. Organisms commonly responsible for causing AOM include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The evolution of pneumococcal resistance to penicillins, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and oral cephalosporins may require treatment with agents such as vancomycin or rifampin in certain patients. H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis are becoming increasingly resistant to penicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oral cephalosporins, and macrolides. Mechanisms of resistance include changes in penicillin-binding proteins, production of beta-lactamase, alterations in target enzymes, and inhibition of drug access to the site of action. Because of changing resistance patterns and the limited spectra of activity of many currently available antimicrobials, new antimicrobials have been developed in the hope of improving therapy. While amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are appropriate first-line agents, children at risk for resistant infections may be treated initially with cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefprozil, or amoxicillin-clavulanate. After local resistance patterns, patient adherence to therapy, in vitro data, and cost factors have been weighed, other agents to consider include loracarbef, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone. Along with the efforts to improve treatment, research is focusing on the prevention of otitis media with bacterial and viral vaccines. The emergence of resistant strains of organisms causing AOM has complicated its treatment.
Referral letter data allowing characterization of AOM by category were available in 471 (79.8%) children, 320 (68%) with simple AOM and 151(32%) with complicated AOM. AOM diagnosis made by the primary care physician was in accord with PED diagnosis in 365/590 (62%) patients. Three hundred and fifty-five (60.2%) patients did not receive antibiotics in the community. Of 365 (62%) children diagnosed with AOM in the community, 235 (64.4%) were treated with antibiotics prior to arrival to PED. Amoxicillin was prescribed to 109 (46.4%), cefuroxime axetil to 48 (20.4%), amoxicillin/clavulanate to 31 (13.2%) and i.m. ceftriaxone to 20 (8.5%) of the patients. Eighty-three (25.9%) patients with simple AOM were treated with antibiotics in the community and only 46 (55.4%) received amoxicillin according to the therapeutic guidelines. Eighty-one (53.6%) patients with complicated AOM were treated with antibiotics in the community and only 41 (50.6%) of them received antibiotics according to AOM therapeutic guidelines. More antibiotics were prescribed in the community to patients with complicated AOM than to patients with simple AOM (81/151, 53.6% versus 83/320, 25.9%, respectively, p < 0.001). Adherence to therapeutic guidelines was similar between the simple and the complicated AOM groups (46/83, 55.4% versus 41/81, 50.6%, respectively, p = 0.5).
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Resistance among common pediatric respiratory tract pathogens to macrolides occurs through two main mechanisms, alteration of the target site and active efflux. Although resistance patterns vary by geographic region, the widespread use of macrolides has contributed to the emergence of both types of macrolide-resistant organisms. Conditions that favor the selection and proliferation of resistant strains include children with repeated, close contact who frequently receive antimicrobial treatment or prophylaxis, such as children who attend day care. Recent US surveillance data show that 20 to 30% of S. pneumoniae are resistant to macrolides, with approximately two-thirds of macrolide-resistant strains associated with an efflux mechanism and the remainder associated with a ribosomal methylase. Additionally, although less well-known, virtually all strains of H. influenzae have an intrinsic macrolide efflux pump. As resistance to macrolides has increased, clinical failures have resulted, and these agents are no longer considered appropriate for empiric first line antimicrobial therapy of acute otitis media and sinusitis unless patients are truly penicillin-allergic. Therefore, other antimicrobials are recommended for the empiric treatment of children with respiratory tract infections, including higher doses of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate (90 mg/kg/day amoxicillin), cefuroxime axetil and intramuscular ceftriaxone.
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The clinical diagnosis was based on the association of sub-orbital pain, purulent rhinorrhea and purulent discharge on the middle nasal meatus and was confirmed radiologically. A rhinoscopic bacteriologic sampling was made on the middle nasal meatus.