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A series of benzamide substituted Mannich bases (1-7) were synthesized. The synthesized derivatives were authenticated by TLC, UV-Visible, FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques and further screened for in vitro antibacterial activity by test tube dilution method using amoxicillin and cefixime as standard drugs. The compounds 5, 6, and 7 were found to be the most active antibacterial agents among all the synthesized compounds. The physicochemical similarity of the compounds with standard drugs was assessed by calculating various physicochemical properties using software programs. The percent similarity of synthesized compounds was found to be good and compound 1 was found to have higher percentage of similarity. The compounds were subjected to QSAR by multilinear regression using Analyze it version 3.0 software, and four statistically sound models were developed with R2 (0.963-0.997), Radj2 (0.529-0.982), and Q2 (0.998-0.999) with good F (2.35-65.56) values.
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All of the isolates exhibited plasmid- or chromosomally mediated resistance to penicillin; however, the proportions of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae decreased rapidly from 64% in 2000 to 21% in 2006. All isolates were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, except for 1 isolate that was not susceptible to cefixime. The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates increased from 26% in 2000 to 83% in 2006. Of 7 substitution types, 5 (Ser-91-Phe in Gyrase A (GyrA), Ser-87-Arg in ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV (ParC); Ser-91-Phe and Asp-95-Ala in GyrA, and Ser-87-Asn in ParC; Ser-91-Phe and Asp-95-Gly in GyrA, and Asp-86-Asn in ParC; Ser-91-Tyr in GyrA; Ser-91-Phe in GyrA, and Asp-86-Asn in ParC) were new ones not identified in our 2004 study. All isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. About half of the patients in our current study (52.6%-58.1%, depending on the year) received spectinomycin treatment. Majorities were resistant to tetracycline, and the rate of highly tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae increased from 3% in 2000 to 9% in 2006.
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Macrolide cross-resistance prevents the use of this entire class of antimicrobials when clarithromycin resistance is present. Tetracyclines and cefixime are possible alternative agents for the treatment of H. pylori infection in these patients.
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Cefdinir, a so-called third-generation oral cephalosporin was tested in vitro against over 700 pathogens from patients with bacteremia. Cefdinir was very active against the Enterobacteriaceae with a 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) value range of less than or equal to 0.03-8 micrograms/ml. The enteric species having the highest MIC90S (greater than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml) were Citrobacter freundii, and the enterobacters, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens. Cefdinir was generally two- to fourfold less active than cefixime, but markedly more potent with a wider spectrum compared with older oral cephalosporins, cefaclor or cefuroxime. In contrast to cefixime, cefdinir inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC90, 1 micrograms/ml) and other staphylococci. Pneumococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and pathogenic Neisseria spp. (MIC90S, 0.12-0.5 micrograms/ml) were cefdinir susceptible, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa, oxacillin-resistant staphylococci and Bacteroides fragilis gr. strains were resistant. Cefdinir was generally bactericidal with a minimal inoculum effect at 10(6) colony-forming units per spot. Cefdinir beta-lactamase hydrolysis by some recently described extended broad spectrum beta-lactamases was suspected. Cefdinir exhibited a wide, balanced spectrum for an oral cephalosporin indicating possible clinical use against susceptible pathogens in respiratory tract, urinary tract, genital and cutaneous infections.
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The Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella pneumoniae produce the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and cephalosporinase enzymes and are the major causes of hospital acquired (HA) infections and epidemics in non-hygienic communities in the majority of developing countries.
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Cefixime, a new orally absorbed cephalosporin, was compared by in vitro testing with other oral beta-lactams, including cephalexin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate. Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited by lower concentrations of cefixime than any of the reference drugs; 90% and 95% were inhibited by less than or equal to 1.0 and less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. Cefixime was the least active among these drugs against staphylococci, with only 31% of 1106 strains inhibited by less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml and less than 1% by less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml. Enterococci and pseudomonads were not susceptible to any of the drugs tested. Penicillin-resistant pneumococci were relatively resistant to cefixime, but penicillin-susceptible pneumococci were very susceptible to cefixime. Other streptococci were generally susceptible to all compounds tested, with relative activities of amoxicillin greater than cefaclor and cefuroxime greater than cefixime greater than cephalexin. Cefixime was inactive against Bacteroides species. A slight inoculum effect occurred with cefixime with inocolum concentrations varying from 10(5) to 10(6) colony forming units per milliliter, but this was more marked at 10(7) colony forming units per milliliter. Cefixime was resistant to hydrolysis by seven common beta-lactamases. It inhibited the hydrolysis of nitrocefin only by type 1 cephalosporinases. The disk diffusion zone diameter breakpoints for the 30-micrograms cefixime disk were determined by regression analysis to be greater than or equal to 27 mm (susceptible) and less than or equal to 23 mm (resistant), respectively corresponding to minimal inhibitory concentration breakpoints of less than or equal to 1.0 and greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms/ml. Because of the high interpretive error rate (13.8%) and the occurrence of these breakpoints on the parabolic portion of the regression curve, we recommend further evaluation of cefixime disks with lower potencies.
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Using isolates collected during a recent treatment trial in 5 US cities, we performed a secondary analysis to compare antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae urogenital isolates obtained from women, MSW, and men who have sex with men (MSM). Pretreatment isolates were collected from trial participants; minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Geometric mean MICs were adjusted for geographic location using general linear models.
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Two authors independently assessed and extracted information. A random-effects model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and risk difference (RD) for recurrent UTI with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
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Many sexually transmitted infections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening all pregnant women for human immunodeficiency virus infection as early as possible. Treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy can reduce transmission to the fetus. Chlamydia screening is recommended for all women at the onset of prenatal care, and again in the third trimester for women who are younger than 25 years or at increased risk. Azithromycin has been shown to be safe in pregnant women and is recommended as the treatment of choice for chlamydia during pregnancy. Screening for gonorrhea is recommended in early pregnancy for those who are at risk or who live in a high-prevalence area, and again in the third trimester for patients who continue to be at risk. The recommended treatment for gonorrhea is ceftriaxone 125 mg intramuscularly or cefixime 400 mg orally. Hepatitis B surface antigen and serology for syphilis should be checked at the first prenatal visit. Benzathine penicillin G remains the treatment for syphilis. Screening for genital herpes simplex virus infection is by history and examination for lesions, with diagnosis of new cases by culture or polymerase chain reaction assay from active lesions. Routine serology is not recommended for screening. The oral antivirals acyclovir and valacyclovir can be used in pregnancy. Suppressive therapy from 36 weeks' gestation reduces viral shedding at the time of delivery in patients at risk of active lesions. Screening for trichomoniasis or bacterial vaginosis is not recommended for asymptomatic women because current evidence indicates that treatment does not improve pregnancy outcomes.
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Thirteen patients received 36 total cycles. Six of the first 10 patients required dose reductions due to toxicity during the first cycle (n = 3) or subsequent cycles (n = 3), and these grade 3 side effects included prolonged nausea, dehydration, anorexia, neuropathy, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, as well as prolonged grade 4 neutropenia. After reducing daily temozolomide to 100 mg/m(2) , three additional patients tolerated therapy well without the need for dose reductions. Toxicities attributed to bevacizumab were limited to grade 1 epistaxis (1) and grade 2 proteinuria (1). Tumor responses were seen in both patients with Ewing sarcoma.