cefixime 100 mg obat apa
38.2% isolates were penicillin-susceptible and 61.8% were penicillin-resistant; 20.6% showed high-level resistance. Resistance rates to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin were, respectively, 30.9, 30.2, 40.9, 66.4, and 13.3% overall, and 54.8, 54.8, 61.3, and 93.5% in the 62 strains with high-level resistance to penicillin. Strains resistant to cefotaxime and cefepime were 13.9 and 14.9%, respectively. MIC50 and MIC90 for cefotaxime and cefepime in penicillin-resistant strains were 0.5 and 1 mg/ml.
cefixime capsules side effects
Bacteria isolated from respiratory tract infections were collected in cooperation with institutions located throughout Japan, since 1981, and the Ikemotor et al. have been investigating susceptibilities of the isolates of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics, and the relationships between the isolates and backgrounds of the patients and so forth each year. We discuss the results in detail. In 20 institutions around the entire Japan from October 1993 to September 1994, 584 strains of bacteria were isolated mainly from sputa of 473 patients with respiratory tract infections and presumed to be the etiological agents. MICs of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics were determined against 91 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 98 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 122 strains of Haemophilus influenzae, 91 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid), 34 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mucoid), 42 strains of Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis, 25 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae etc., and the drug susceptibilities of these strains were measured except the strains which died during transportation. 1. S. aureus S. aureus strain sfor which MICs of methicillin was higher than 4 micrograms/ml (methicillin-resistant S. aureus) accounted for 56.0%, but this frequency of the drug resistant bacteria was lower than the previous year's 61.4%. Arbekacin and vancomycin showed the highest activities against MRSA and MIC80s were 1 microgram/ml. 2. S. pneumoniae Benzylpenicillin among the penicillins showed potent activities against S. pneumoniae. Cefuzonam, cefotaxime and cefmenoxime among the cephems showed excellent antimicrobial activities against S. pneumoniae. Imipenem; carbapenems, showed the most potent activity, and MIC90 was 0.063 microgram/ml. 3. H. influenzae All the drugs tested were quite active against H. influenzae. Cefotaxime, cefmenoxime, cefuzonam and cefixime among the cephems showed the most potent activities, and MIC90 were 0.063 microgram/ml against H. influenzae. Ofloxacin also showed MIC90 of 0.063 microgram/ml. 4. P. aeruginosa (mucoid) Tobramycin showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid), and MIC80 was 1 microgram/ml. Ceftazidime, cefsulodin, imipenem, aztreonam, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin showed potent activities with MIC80s of 2 micrograms/ml. 5. P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid) Tobramycin showed the highest activity against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid), and MIC80 was 1 microgram/ml, followed by ciprofloxacin with MIC80 of 2 micrograms/ml. Comparing to activities against P. aeruginosa (mucoid), all the drugs tested had relatively low activities against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid). 6. K. pneumoniae. The activities of all drugs except ampicillin and minocycline were high against K. pneumoniae. Cefozopran, imipenem and carumonam showed the highest activities and MIC80s were 0.125 microgram/ml. Flomoxef showed the next highest activities with an MIC80 of 0.25 microgram/ml. 7. M.(B.) catarrhalis Imipenem showed the most potent activity against M.(B.) catarrhalis, with an MIC80 of 0.063 microgram/ml, followed minocycline and ofloxacin with their MIC80s of 0.125 microgram/ml. We also investigated year to year changes in the background of patients, as well as types of respiratory infectious diseases, and the etiological agents. As for patients background, there were many infectious diseases found among patients a high age bracket, and the patients over age 60 accounted for 61.3% of the diseases. The distribution by respiratory tract infections was as follows: chronic bronchitis and bacterial pneumonia accounted for the greatest numbers of cases with 31.1% and 26.0%, respectively, followed by bronchiectasis with 10.4%. In this year chronic bronchitis under age 29 were 41.7%, thus was much higher than 12.5% in previous year. This marked change was first noted in your research during the recent 5 years. As for frequencies of etiologic bacteria by respiratory tract infections, S. pneumoniae (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
cefixime dispersible tablets 200mg uses
This multicentre, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of cefixime versus amoxicillin. Patients were admitted if they had lower respiratory tract infection with a bacterial pathogen susceptible to both study drugs. Diagnoses included acute respiratory tract infections with no underlying pulmonary pathology (cefixime 21, amoxicillin 27), acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease (cefixime 32, amoxicillin 42), superinfection of viral bronchitis or lung cancer, and pleuritis (cefixime 10, amoxicillin 6). Patients were treated for at least 10 days with either cefixime 200 mg b.d. or amoxicillin 1 g b.d. A clinical success rate of 80.7 per cent (50/62) in the cefixime group and 82.2 per cent (60/73) in the amoxicillin group was achieved in infections due to susceptible organisms. In acute infections with no underlying pathology, the clinical success rate was 90.5 per cent with cefixime and 81.5 per cent with amoxicillin. Twenty-three cefixime patients and 20 amoxicillin patients were seen 2 to 6 weeks after treatment: there were 2 and 1 clinical recurrences, respectively. All 3 patients were suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease. The bacteriological eradication rate at the end of treatment in assessable patients was 94.7 per cent (17/18) with cefixime and 80 per cent (16/20) with amoxicillin. Six and 11 new organisms appeared, responsible for 2 superinfections under cefixime and 7 under amoxicillin. Treatment was well tolerated by 96.4 per cent of cefixime patients and 90 per cent of amoxicillin patients. This study confirms the value of cefixime as a new oral antibiotic in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in adults.
cefixime 200 mg brands
For the purpose of the present study, faucial smears were obtained for the microbiological examination and the choice of adequate antibacterial therapy from the children presenting with pathological changes in the pharyngeal lymphoid tissue ring (congenital isolated labial and palatal cleft). The majority of the patients were children during the first year of life who had Gram-negative microorganisms in the oral cavity from day 1 after admission to the surgical clinic. The data obtained show that the development of intercurrent diseases and postoperative complications can be prevented by the parenteral application of cephalosporins of the III and IV generations as well as by oral administration of cefixime and protected aminopenicillins.
cefixime dispersible tablets 100mg dosage
This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.
cefixime azithromycin tablets uses
The confirmation of serotype by specific immunomethods is necessary to prevent false-positive detection and incorrect enumeration.
cefixime dosage 200 mg
We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. MICs for B. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). When B. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the MIC of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill 99% of the organisms.
cefixime trihydrate tablets uses
In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mosaic structure of the penA gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 2 [PBP 2]), which is composed of fragments of the penA genes from Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria perflava, has been significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, particularly oral cephalosporins. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae by real-time PCR. This assay successfully detected the mosaic penA gene of N. gonorrhoeae, and its sensitivity was >or=10(1) copies/reaction. Six hundred twenty-one clinical strains were examined by this assay for the presence of mosaic PBP 2, which was detected in 85 (39.4%) of 216 strains from 2002, 69 (40.6%) of 170 strains from 2003, 71 (44.4%) of 160 strains from 2004, and 31 (41.3%) of 75 strains from 2005. The MICs of cephalosporins for strains with the mosaic PBP 2 detected by the assay were statistically higher than those for strains without the mosaic PBP 2. One hundred sixty-six (64.8%) of 256 strains with the mosaic PBP 2 exhibited cefixime MICs of >or=0.5 microg/ml. The emergence and spread of strains with mosaic PBP 2 could be a threat to the cefixime treatment of gonorrhea. This real-time PCR assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae is thus useful in the prediction of decreased susceptibilities to oral cephalosporins.
cefixime capsules 200mg tri gi
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.