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Cefodox

Cefodox is used for treating mild to moderate infections caused by certain bacteria. Cefodox is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's cell wall so that the wall ruptures, resulting in the death of the bacteria.

Other names for this medication:
Cefirax, Cefobid, Cefoprox, Cefpodoxima, Cefpodoxime, Cepodem, Orelox, Otreon, Tambac, Vantin

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Also known as:  Vantin.

Description

Cefodox is an oral, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is active against most Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Notable exceptions include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, and Bacteroides fragilis. Currently, it is only marketed as generic preparations in the USA, according to the FDA Orange Book. It is commonly used to treat acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, and gonorrhea. It also finds use as oral continuation therapy when intravenous cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) are no longer necessary for continued treatment.

Cefodox inhibits cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in cell walls. It has well established pharmacokinetic profile with absorption of 50%. It is indicated in community acquired pneumonia, uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections.

Dosage

Take this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take this medicine with a full glass of water.

The Cefodox tablet should be taken with food.

Cefodox oral suspension (liquid) can be taken with or without food.

Shake the liquid well just before you measure a dose. To be sure you get the correct dose, measure the liquid with a marked measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

This medication can cause you to have false results with certain medical tests, including urine glucose (sugar) tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using Cefodox.

Take Cefodox for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. Cefodox will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Store the tablets at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

Store Cefodox oral liquid in the refrigerator. Do not allow it to freeze. Throw away any unused medication that is older than 14 days.

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine.

Overdose symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and diarrhea.

Take the medication as soon as you remember the missed dose. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and use the medicine at your next regularly scheduled time. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Overdose

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Overdose symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and diarrhea.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. After mixing the suspension store in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F). Do not freeze. Throw away unused portion after fourteen days. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cefodox are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take this medication if you are allergic to cefpodoxime, or to similar antibiotics, such as Ceftin, Cefzil, Keflex, Omnicef, and others.

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially penicillin). Also tell your doctor if you have kidney disease or a history of intestinal problems.

Take this medication for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. Cefpodoxime will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or has blood in it, call your doctor. Do not use any medicine to stop the diarrhea unless your doctor has told you to.

cefodox tablet

This case-control study of full-term newborns with presumed or proven bacterial infection compared the efficacy, safety and tolerability of switch antibiotic therapy and traditional completely intravenous antibiotic administration. there were 36 newborns treated with switch therapy (i.v. ampicillin + sulbactam combined with i.v. amikacin for 3 days followed by oral cefpodoxime proxetil for 5 days); there were 72 full-term newborns with the same characteristics as controls who received i.v. ampicillin + sulbactam combined with i.v. amikacin for 3 days followed by i.v. ampicillin + sulbactam alone for a further 5 days. the results showed that full-term newborns with presumed or proven bacterial infection initially treated with intravenous antibiotics can be switched to oral antibiotics after 3 days' therapy if physical and laboratory data indicate the disappearance of infection, thus significantly reducing the length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit and significantly increasing breastfeeding, without having any negative clinical impact.

cefodox tablets 100mg

Oral cephalosporins are key antimicrobials in the family physician's therapeutic armamentarium. The list of available agents within this class has been recently expanded to include cefixime, cefprozil, cefpodoxime proxetil, and loracarbef. Each of these antibiotics has differing antimicrobial coverage patterns and approved therapeutic uses. Compared with older, more established antimicrobials such as penicillin, amoxicillin, cefaclor, a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, and erythromycin, the newer cephalosporins offer little, if any, therapeutic advantage. Clinical efficacy has been shown to be equal in virtually all studies comparing the newer cephalosporins with traditional agents for various community-acquired infections. While the four newer agents may be given less often, they are relatively expensive. In light of the available clinical data, the newer oral cephalosporins should be reserved as second- or third-line choices.

cefodox dosage

Randomized, multicenter, investigator-blinded.

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It was found that the reduction of the cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) molecule is strongly influenced by the adsorption. The adsorptive properties of CP were investigated in order to achieve an increase sensitivity of its determination. Validated adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetry is applied for the determination of low concentration of CP at pH 3.5 and 9.0 where the best pronounced adsorption effects were observed. The linearity of the calibration curves were achieved from 1 x 10(-8) to 1 x 10(-7)M with limit of detection (LOD) of 6.3 x 10(-9) and 7.1 x 10(-9)M, and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2.1 x 10(-8) and 2.3 x 10(-8)M, at pH 3.5 and 9.0, respectively. The proposed method was tested for CP determination in spiked urine samples, enabling determination of low concentrations of CP.

cefodox 200 mg 6

A new validated spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of some cephalosporins namely; cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime and cefexime. The method was based on the reaction of these drugs with safranin in slightly alkaline medium (pH 8.0), to form ion-association complexes. The fluorescent products were extracted into chloroform and their fluorescence intensities were measured at 544-565 nm after excitation at 518-524 nm. The reaction conditions influencing the product formation and stability were investigated and optimized. The relative fluorescence intensity was proportional to the drug concentration in the linear ranges of 0.15-1.35, 0.35-1.25, 0.35-1.25, 0.20-1.44 and 0.20-1.25 μg/mL for cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefexime, respectively. The detection limits were 40, 100, 100, 60 and 70 ng/mL, respectively. The performance of the developed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference spectrophotometric method. Various pharmaceutical formulations were successfully analyzed using the proposed method and the results were in good agreement with those of the previously reported methods.

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We evaluated in vitro and in vivo activities of cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR) in comparison with other oral beta-lactams, cefdinir (CFDN), cefditoren pivoxil (CDTR-PI), and faropenem (FRPM), against penicillin-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In vitro activities (MICs) of CPDX, CFDN, CDTR, and FRPM against clinical isolates, penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP: MIC of penicillin G, < or = 0.063 microgram/ml), penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP: MIC of penicillin G, 0.125-1 microgram/ml), and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP: MIC of penicillin G, > or = 2 micrograms/ml), were tested by an agar dilution method. The MIC80s of CPDX against 27 PSSP strains, 23 PISP strains, and 23 PRSP strains were 0.032, 1, and 8 micrograms/ml, respectively, which were superior to or equal to those of CFDN (0.063, 4, and 8 micrograms/ml) and were inferior to those of CDTR (0.016, 0.5, and 1 microgram/ml) and FRPM (< or = 0.008, 0.25, and 1 microgram/ml). Infection was induced in mice by inoculating with a PRSP clinical isolate, 9605 or 9601 (serotype 6), or 10692 (serotype 19), through the nares of male ddY mice into the lungs. The mice were treated with drugs with doses of 2-50 mg/kg at 18, 26, 42, and 50 hours after the infection. Viable cell numbers in the lungs and blood were assayed at 66 hours after the infection. The efficacy of each drug was dose-dependent. CPDX-PR showed the most potent in vivo efficacy among the drugs tested against the infections caused by the PRSP strains. MICs of the drugs against PRSP 9605, 9601, and 10692 were as follows: CPDX, 4, 4 and 2 micrograms/ml; CFDN, 16, 16, and 4 micrograms/ml; CDTR, 1, 1, and 0.5 microgram/ml; and FRPM, 1, 0.5, and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively. Thus, CPDX-PR showed a stronger in vivo activity than that expected from the MICs of CPDX. This was probably caused by the pharmacokinetic advantage of CPDX over the other drugs used in this study.

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The disposition of cefpodoxime in 24 subjects with various degrees of renal function after administration of a single oral dose of 200 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil (equivalent to 200 mg of cefpodoxime activity) was studied. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups (six per group): group I, normal renal function (creatinine clearance [CLCR], greater than ml/min); group II, mild renal impairment (CLCR, 50 to 80 ml/min); group III, moderate renal impairment (CLCR, 30 to 49 ml/min); or group IV, severe renal impairment (CLCR, 5 to 29 ml/min). Although cefpodoxime terminal elimination half-life in group I (2.55 +/- 0.25 h [mean +/- standard deviation]) was not significantly different from that in group II (3.53 +/- 0.74 h), the half-life values for group III (5.90 +/- 1.67 h) and group IV (9.80 +/- 1.21 h) were significantly prolonged compared with those of group I. The mean absorption rate constant was similar among groups and ranged from 0.68 to 0.85 h-1. All groups exhibited absorption lag-times which were comparable (0.30 to 0.41 h), and the apparent volume of distribution was similar among groups. Cefpodoxime apparent total body clearance (CLP/F) values in groups II, III, and IV (132 +/- 29, 112 +/- 41, and 55.7 +/- 9.9 ml/min, respectively) were significantly lower than that in group I (238 +/- 44 ml/min). Cefpodoxime CLP/F was positively correlated with CLCR (r2 = 0.79; P less than 0.05): CLP/F = (1.9 CLCR) + 18.4. Renal clearance also declined with decreasing renal function. Adjustments in cefpodoxime organism and on the site and severity of infection. Simulated plasma concentration-time data from this study suggest that 200 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil administered every 12 to 24 h to subjects with CLcr between 30 and 49 ml/min and 200-mg dose taken every 24 h by subjects with CLcr between 5 and 29 ml/min will maintain cefpodoxime concentration in plasma similar to those in subjects with normal renal function who receive a standard dosage mg every 12 h.

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Despite PCV7 implementation, AOM remains a very frequent childhood infection and a major reason for ATB prescriptions.

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The efficacy and tolerance of cefpodoxime proxetil were compared with those of cefaclor in a multicentre, international, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adult outpatients suffering from acute sinusitis. At the end of treatment, cefpodoxime proxetil was more effective than cefaclor, producing complete clinical cure in 84% of cases (102/122) vs 68% of cases (77/114) in the cefaclor group (P = 0.01). The overall clinical efficacy (cure + improvement) was similar in the two groups with 95% (116/122) satisfactory responses in the cefpodoxime proxetil group and 93% (106/114) in the cefaclor group. Bacteriological response was similar with 95% eradication in the cefpodoxime proxetil group (55/58) vs 91% with cefaclor (63/69).

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In 7- to 14-day-old foals, mean +/- SD time to peak serum concentration (Tmax) was 1.7 +/- 0.7 hours, maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 0.81 +/- 0.22 microg/mL, and elimination half-life (harmonic mean) was 7.2 hours. Disposition of cefpodoxime in 3- to 4-month-old foals was not significantly different from that of neonates. Adult horses had significantly higher Cmax and significantly lower Tmax, compared with values for foals. The MIC of cefpodoxime required to inhibit growth of 90% of isolates for Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella spp, Klebsiella spp, and beta-hemolytic streptococci was 0.38, 1.00, 0.16, 0.19, and 0.09 microg/mL, respectively.

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Between September 2006 and September 2007, 91 physicians enrolled 2400 children and 1482 patient records are fully assessable. The two factors that improve significantly compliance are administration in two doses by day (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1 6-3]) and acceptability ≥80% (OR 2.6, [95% CI 1.9-3.7]). The acceptability was better for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 65.4% (95% CI [57.6 to 72.4]) than for cefpodoxime 47.1% (95% CI [43.8-50.4]) or cefuroxime axetil 26% (95% [CI 15.9-39.6]). Conversely, cefpodoxime proxetil obtained a better score for compliance 91.8% (95% CI [89.8 to 93.4) as amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 84.6% (95%CI 80.8 to 87.8) because of its mode of administration in two doses per day. There is no difference between the amoxicillin clavulanic acid reference product and its generics as a whole, however a large variability exists between generics. If, for antibiotics prescribed in two doses per day, the two administrations by day are roughly equidistant, it is not the same for those prescribed three times a day: indeed, while the doses taken are identical, only four hours separate the first intake of the morning from the second intake in mid-day and more than 12 hours between the evening dose from the next morning intake.

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cefodox tabs 2017-07-11

Cefpodoxime proxetil is an oral cephem antibiotic of a new ester type, developed by Sankyo Co., Ltd in Japan. It Trozocina 500 Mg A Cosa Serve has a broad antibacterial spectrum, which includes Staphylococcus, and a long half-life, allowing twice-daily administration. In Japan, clinical studies on this drug were performed in various fields, including internal medicine, surgery, urology, otorhinolaryngology, and obstetrics and gynaecology. Good or excellent clinical responses were observed in 2275 of 2902 patients analysed, giving a 78.4% efficacy rate overall. Side effects occurred in 98 patients (2.7%); these were mainly gastrointestinal and included diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. Abnormal laboratory test results observed included increased AST in 2.8% (55 of 1973), increased ALT in 3.2% (63 of 1965), and eosinophilia in 2.4% (36 of 1521).

cefodox what kind of antibiotic 2016-01-31

In order to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of cefatrizine (Cefaperos) and cefpodoxime proxetil (Orelox) in the treatment of secondarily infected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, a multicentre, randomized, open study was conducted by 60 general practitioners in two parallel groups of patient suffering from COPD complicated by an Cotrim Forte Dosage acute episode of superinfection (Anthoniesen stages 2 and 3). After verification of the eligibility criteria, written consent and randomization, the patients received, for 10 days, either cefatrizine at the dose of 1 g/day or cefpodoxime proxetil at the dose of 400 mg/day. A self-assessment form was given to the patient. A telephone visit was planned for D3. The final visit on D11 +/- 1 evaluated clinical efficacy (success or failure) and safety. The study population was composed of 250 patients with a mean age of 59.9 +/- 15.9 years (sex ratio M/F = 1.5). The principal etiology of COPD was chronic bronchitis in 67.5% of patients, longstanding asthma in 24.5% and emphysema in 6.8%. The mean history of the disease was 13.0 +/- 10.8 years. The Anthoniesen score was equal to 2 in 73.6% of patients, 3 in 8.8% of patients and 1 in 17.6% of patients. No significant difference concerning these criteria was observed between the two study groups. The clinical success rate was equivalent in the two groups. The time to regression of clinical signs tended to be shorter, up until the sixth day (mainly between D4 and D6) for patients treated with cefatrizine (p = 0.09; NS). The clinical safety was considered to be good and was comparable in the two study groups. This study concluded on the equivalent clinical efficacy of cefatrizine and cefpodoxime proxetil in the treatment of superinfections of COPD in general practice (97.5% and 99%, respectively), with a satisfactory and comparable safety, but with a much lower cost of treatment for cefatrizine. This conclusion is particularly important in the context of opposable medical references, as, although the treatment of superinfections of COPD by second and third generation cephalosporins is frequently proposed, the prescription of a less expensive cephalosporin appears to be more relevant.

cefodox 400 mg 2016-09-15

These findings suggest that cefpodoxime proxetil administered once daily is as effective and safe as cefixime given once daily in the treatment of acute Remora Xdm Review suppurative otitis media in pediatric patients.

cefodox 200mg dosage 2015-06-07

The clinical success rates at day 12-19 in the per-protocol population (primary analysis) were 92.3% (215/233) in the cefpodoxime-proxetil group and 93.6% (204/218) in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid Clavamox Where To Buy group. The 95% confidence interval of [6.5%; 3.9%] demonstrated that cefpodoxime-proxetil was not inferior to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Cure rates at follow-up (day 25-30) were 90.6% and 92.7%, respectively. Results were similar in the intent-to-treat population. Compliance was significantly better in the cefpodoxime-proxetil group (99.2% versus 95.5%; p=0.011). Tolerance was also significantly better: 1.2% (3/247) of cefpodoxime-proxetil patients reported a treatment-related adverse event, compared with 10.7% (26/244) in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group (p<0.001). Most events were gastrointestinal and of mild to moderate intensity.

cefodox 100 ml syrup 2016-11-01

The in-vitro activity of cefpodoxime, the active compound of the ester prodrug, cefpodoxime proxetil, was compared with that of other antibiotics. The susceptibility of bacterial isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections was determined by an agar dilution method. The MIC90s of cefpodozime for ampicillin-sensitive and beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae were 0.12 and 0.25 mg/l, respectively; the MIC90s for ampicillin-resistant non-beta-lactamase-producing strains was 1 mg/l. Time-kill curves of cefpodoxime against ampicillin-sensitive and ampicillin-resistant beta-lactamase producing strains showed a time-dependent Cefixime Capsules Dissolution bactericidal activity. The MIC90s for ampicillin-sensitive and ampicillin-resistant Branhamella catarrhalis were 0.50 and 1 mg/l, respectively. The MIC90s for penicillin-sensitive pneumococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci and Streptococcus agalactiae were 0.06, 0.06 and 0.12 mg/l, respectively. The inhibitory activity against penicillin-resistant pneumococci was limited: the MIC90 was 4 mg/l.

cefodox medicine 2016-08-16

Fine particles of cefpodoxime proxetil (CPD) were prepared using an Aerosol Solvent Extraction System (ASES) with supercritical CO(2). The resulting primary particles were approximately 0.1-0.2microm in size and were almost spherical in shape. The secondary particles were approximately 0.2-0.6microm in size and had irregular shapes. The larger particle size and irregular shapes were due to the agglomeration of the primary particles. The effects of solvent type, CO(2)-to-CPD solution weight ratio, and CPD solution concentration on the extent of agglomeration were investigated. As a result, the use of ethyl acetate and acetone as solvents also reduced the degree of agglomeration. The degree of agglomeration was reduced with the use of a high CO(2)-to-solution weight ratio, and a low solution concentration. In particular, spherical particles, approximately 0.1- Ic Metronidazole Side Effects Alcohol 0.4microm in size, were obtained when a 10.0wt% CPD solution was used. As a result of dissolution study, almost 90% of the processed CPD had dissolved within 10min. The recovery yield of the CPD powder reached approximately 80% using a membrane filter.

cefodox tablets 100mg 2016-10-10

Compound U-76,252 (Upjohn) is a cephalosporin ester that enhances oral absorption of the active free acid cephem, U-76,253. The active form structurally resembles parenteral aminothiazolyl-methoxyimino cephalosporins such as cefotaxime and its desacetyl metabolite. The g-negative antimicrobial activity of U-76,253 A (sodium salt of U-76,253) was most similar to that of cefixime and more potent than that of cefaclor or cefuroxime among the orally administered cephalosporins. Against g-positive bacteria, U-76,253 A was more active than cefixime. U-76,253 A was relatively stable to hydrolysis by five beta-lactamases (Type Ia, TEM-1, K1, CARB-2, and OXA-1), a stability most similar to cefotaxime and superior to that of cefaclor. Only the Type Ia (P99) enzyme Azithromycin Pprom Dose was significantly inhibited by U-76,253 (IC 50 = 2.0 microM).

cefodox syrup 50mg 2016-01-16

Acute otitis media (AOM) is not only the most common bacterial infection in children in the United States, it is also the most common indication for the prescription of antibiotics. Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance to pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis) typically causative of AOM, continues to increase. More than 30% of the beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae are resistant to amoxicillin and virtually all strains of M. catarrhalis are beta-lactamase-positive. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, particularly S. pneumoniae, complicates the management of AOM and increases the risk for treatment failure. Because of growing resistance, the Centers for Disease Control and the American Academy of Pediatrics promote the judicious use of antibiotics in the treatment of AOM. Their recommendations emphasize the importance of distinguishing AOM from otitis media with effusion, minimizing the use of antibiotics, and discerning between first- and second-line antibiotics in Clindagel Dosage the treatment of simple uncomplicated AOM versus non-responsive/recurrent AOM. Because spontaneous cure rates are lower in complicated AOM and AOM secondary to S. pneumoniae infection, antibiotic therapy remains an appropriate treatment option for most children with AOM. When amoxicillin, the treatment of choice in AOM, is not effective or not tolerated in children, the prescriber should consider an alternative that displays not only excellent antimicrobial activity against the suspected pathogens, but also characteristics, such as convenient dosing, tolerability, and palatability, that promote compliance and adherence in children. The cephalosporins offer an alternative to penicillins. Cephalosporins such as cefuroxime axetil (second-generation) and cefdinir and cefpodoxime proxetil (third-generation), offer a broad spectrum of activity and are approved for use in a convenient once- or twice-daily dosing schedule, thus increasing the likelihood of compliance with the full course of therapy. Cefdinir is a possible second-line alternative to amoxicillin for children with AOM, particularly among children who are likely to be noncompliant with a two- to three-times-daily dosing schedule, and those instances where there is a high likelihood for, or a known infection with an amoxicillin-resistant pathogen.