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Twenty-seven randomized clinical trials (6463 patients), 6 systematic reviews, and 11 observational studies (252,934 patients) were included in our review. Acute uncomplicated cystitis in women can be diagnosed without an office visit or urine culture. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160/800 mg twice daily for 3 days), nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals (100 mg twice daily for 5-7 days), and fosfomycin trometamol (3 g in a single dose) are all appropriate first-line therapies for uncomplicated cystitis. Fluoroquinolones are effective for clinical outcomes but should be reserved for more invasive infections. β-Lactam agents (amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefpodoxime-proxetil) are not as effective as empirical first-line therapies. Immediate antimicrobial therapy is recommended rather than delayed treatment or symptom management with ibuprofen alone. Limited observational studies support 7 to 14 days of therapy for acute urinary tract infection in men. Based on 1 observational study and our expert opinion, women with diabetes without voiding abnormalities presenting with acute cystitis should be treated similarly to women without diabetes.
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Recurrent acute pharyngotonsillitis remains a common illness in children and young adults and can lead to serious complications if not treated. cefpodoxime proxetil is a second-generation oral cephalosporin, which shows potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and high stability in the presence of beta-lactamases.
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Concurrently with administering a newly developed cephem derivative antibiotic (CEP), cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR, CS-807) dry syrup, to children with skin and soft tissue infections, activities of 7 drugs against a group of microorganisms were tested. The drugs tested included 4 drugs of the cephem group, R-3746, a Na-salt form of CPDX, cefaclor (CCL), cephalexin (CEX) and cefadroxil (CDX), and 3 drugs of the penicillin group, ampicillin (ABPC), methicillin (DMPPC) and cloxacillin (MCIPC). The bacterial strains tested were 71 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, all isolated from the above cases of pediatric infections. Inoculum sizes used in these tests were 10(6) and 10(8) cfu/ml. Ages of children in those cases to which the drug was administered ranged from 2 months to 15 years. A total of 66 cases were treated, including 60 cases of impetigo, 5 cases of subcutaneous abscess and 1 case of phlegmon. The drug was administered for an average of 6 days with a daily average dose level of 9.4 mg/kg divided into 3 doses except 1 case where a twice daily dose regimen was used. Clinical and bacteriological effects were examined, and the occurrence of adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory test results were recorded. The results of these tests are summarized below. 1. The activity test for R-3746 (Na-salt of CPDX) against 71 strains of S. aureus performed at an inoculum level of 10(8) cfu/ml showed 2 peaks of MIC values, one in a range of 1.56 to 6.25 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 100 micrograms/ml. The most prevalent MIC value was 3.13 micrograms/ml with MIC against 51 strains or 71.8% of the strains tested showing this value, and MIC values of 25 micrograms/ml or higher were obtained for 13 strains or 18.3% of the strains tested. The MIC80 was 6.25 micrograms/ml. Thus, R-3746 showed an antibacterial activity slightly weaker than MCIPC and DMPPC but similar to CCL, CEX and CDX. MIC values obtained at an inoculum level of 10(6) cfu/ml also had 2 peaks, one in a range of 1.56 to 3.13 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 25 micrograms/ml. Strains against which R-3746 had the MIC value of 3.13 micrograms/ml were the most numerous with 47 strains or 66.2%, and strains against which the MIC value of higher than 25 micrograms/ml was obtained were next with 13 strains or 18.3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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In Japan, oral antimicrobial agents are prophylactically used with oxytocics after normal delivery to prevent puerperal infections. The present study was designed to investigate bacterial floras in the endometrial cavity immediately after normal delivery and the effect of prophylactic use of anti-microbial agents on those floras. Sixty-six puerperae who underwent uneventful courses of pregnancy and delivery were subjected for this study. Intrauterine contents were collected on the first day and the fifth day of the puerperium and submitted to microbiological examinations. Cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR) was orally given to the puerperae for prophylaxis for 5 days after the initial sampling. On the puerperal first day, a total of 98 strains (71 strains of aerobic bacteria, 27 strains of anaerobic bacteria) was detected in the uteri of the 66 subjects. The incidences of aerobic Gram-positive cocci, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobic bacteria were 59.2%, 12.2%, 27.6% of the 98 strains, respectively. On the puerperal fifth day, a total of 82 strains (51 strains of aerobic bacteria and 31 strains of anaerobic bacteria) were detected in the uteri of the 66 subjects. The incidences of aerobic Gram-positive cocci, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobic bacteria were 52.5%, 8.6% and 37.7% of 82 strains, respectively.
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Most authorities continue to recommend penicillin as the treatment of choice for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. If penicillin is used, 10 days of treatment are necessary to achieve a clinical and bacteriologic cure. The usually recommended penicillin V dose is 250 mg (400,000 IU) three times daily. Twice daily dosing is acceptable to some authorities if compliance is good. However, oral penicillin fails to eradicate group A streptococci from the pharynx in up to 17% of cases; in some studies 30% failure rates have been reported. Several European and United States studies indicate that a variety of oral cephalosporins, when used for 10 days, are significantly superior to penicillin V in eradicating group A streptococci from the pharynx. For example cefpodoxime proxetil given twice daily for 10 days is comparable to penicillin V given three times daily for 10 days in achieving a clinical cure and appears to be significantly superior to penicillin in eradicating group A streptococci from the pharynx. Preliminary studies from Europe and the United States strongly suggest that 5-day therapy with cefpodoxime (or other selected oral cephalosporins) is at least as effective, clinically and microbiologically, as 10-day therapy with penicillin V. Further clinical trials are warranted to confirm the adequacy of 5-day treatment and to assess the efficacy of cefpodoxime and other agents in preventing rheumatic fever.
The proposed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of cefpodoxime proxetil in both bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulation.
Antibiotics were prescribed in 12,471 (85.1%) of cases of AOM during the study period. Amoxicillin prescriptions was multiplied by 25, between the first year (2.6%) and the last year (66.1%). Conversely, prescriptions of cefpodoxime proxetil and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid decreased from 33.6% and 62.0% in the first year to 5.2% and 27.7% in the last year, respectively. This trend was observed in both private practices and in the pediatric emergency departments.
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Eighteen patients undergoing thoracotomy for suspected pulmonary neoplasia were given 200 mg cefpodoxime equivalent by mouth, before operation. Plasma samples were obtained before dose administration, and plasma and lung tissue samples were obtained at the time of operation which was 3, 6 or 12 h after the dose. All samples were assayed for cefpodoxime. The mean ratios for lung tissue/plasma concentrations were similar between 3 and 12 h after dose, suggesting that equilibrium between plasma and lung tissue concentrations was reached within 3 h of medication. The mean concentrations of cefpodoxime in lung tissue were 0.63 +/- 0.16, 0.52 +/- 0.09 and 0.19 +/- 0.02 mg/kg at 3, 6 and 12 h after administration, respectively. These observations indicate good, rapid and sustained penetration into lung tissue in concentrations greater than or equal to the MIC90 for most common micro-organisms found in community-acquired pneumonia.
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Cefpodoxime proxetil is an orally administered prodrug which is converted in vivo to the third generation cephalosporin cefpodoxime. Cefpodoxime has a similar spectrum of antibacterial activity to the parenteral cephalosporins ceftriaxone and cefotaxime and a long elimination half-life, which allows once- or twice-daily administration. Cefpodoxime proxetil has proven efficacy in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and upper respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue and urinary tract infections. It has been evaluated for use in cost-containment programmes, as stepdown (parenteral-to-oral conversion) therapy in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and as abbreviated therapy in upper respiratory tract infections. Substituting oral for parenteral therapy can achieve considerable savings (in acquisition, delivery and labour costs). Moreover, oral administration has advantages for the patient in terms of comfort and mobility, avoids the hazards of parenteral delivery and may allow earlier discharge from hospital, or even allow home treatment from the outset in low-risk patients. As hospitalisation is usually the major cost component in treating serious infections, considerable savings can be made in this way. Pharmacy-driven stepdown programmes in 2 US hospitals have achieved cost savings by targeting patients with community-acquired pneumonia for early conversion from intravenous ceftriaxone therapy to oral cefpodoxime proxetil. Costs were compared with those from a control group of patients who continued to receive intravenous ceftriaxone until physicians deemed that oral therapy (with various agents) was appropriate. In one study, duration of parenteral therapy in the cefpodoxime proxetil group was reduced from 6.18 to 3.82 days and duration of hospitalisation was reduced from 10.06 to 6.23 days (p < 0.02), with corresponding hospitalisation cost reductions of $US7300 per patient. However, clinical trial data relating to the efficacy of cefpodoxime proxetil as stepdown therapy in patients initially requiring parenteral antibacterials are lacking. Abbreviated (4-to 7-day) cephalosporin regimens appear to be as effective as traditional 10-day penicillin regimens in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. Short regimens may improve patient compliance and tolerability, thereby reducing the costs of adverse effects and treatment failures. Data from preliminary clinical studies suggest that a 5-day course of cefpodoxime proxetil is as effective as an 8-day course of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in treating either acute otitis media or sinusitis, and as effective as a 10-day course of amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid and more effective than a 10-day course of phenoxymethyl- penicillin in the treatment of pharyngotonsillitis. Cefpodoxime proxetil tended to be better tolerated and was associated with better compliance than penicillin-based regimens. Indeed, a pharmacoeconomic study showed that a 10-day regimen of cefpodoxime proxetil was associated with lower costs for treating adverse effects and treatment failures than a 10-day regimen of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of acute otitis media in children. A 5-day course of cefpodoxime proxetil had a lower cost per patient treated per month free of recurrence than a 10-day course of phenoxymethylpenicillin (non-generic) or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of recurrent pharyngotonsillitis. Thus, evidence to date suggests that cefpodoxime proxetil has potential for use as stepdown therapy in community-acquired pneumonia and in abbreviated therapy courses in upper respiratory tract infections. These preliminary observations require confirmation in well designed studies.