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A 16-year-old white hemophiliac boy with HIV infection secondary to tainted coagulation factor VIII was treated with indinavir sulfate. The patient developed gross hematuria, proteinuria, pyuria, abdominal pain, increased bilirubin, an elevated serum creatinine (SCr) of 1.2 mg/dL (baseline 0.9-1.0), and symptoms of renal colic within 1 month of starting indinavir sulfate therapy. Approximately 2 months later the patient developed a low-grade fever with a further increase in SCr. He was prescribed a 10-day course of cefpodoxime proxetil for a possible urinary tract infection. One week later, the patient developed fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, sterile pyuria, nasal congestion, and an elevated SCr of 1.3-1.7 mg/dL. Indinavir sulfate and cefpodoxime proxetil were discontinued and the patient was suspected of having tubulointerstitial nephritis secondary to indinavir sulfate. The patient's nephritis resolved and the SCr decreased to 1.1 mg/dL within 1 month of discontinuing indinavir sulfate.
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The in-vitro activity of cefpodoxime, the active compound of the ester prodrug, cefpodoxime proxetil, was compared with that of other antibiotics. The susceptibility of bacterial isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections was determined by an agar dilution method. The MIC90s of cefpodozime for ampicillin-sensitive and beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae were 0.12 and 0.25 mg/l, respectively; the MIC90s for ampicillin-resistant non-beta-lactamase-producing strains was 1 mg/l. Time-kill curves of cefpodoxime against ampicillin-sensitive and ampicillin-resistant beta-lactamase producing strains showed a time-dependent bactericidal activity. The MIC90s for ampicillin-sensitive and ampicillin-resistant Branhamella catarrhalis were 0.50 and 1 mg/l, respectively. The MIC90s for penicillin-sensitive pneumococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci and Streptococcus agalactiae were 0.06, 0.06 and 0.12 mg/l, respectively. The inhibitory activity against penicillin-resistant pneumococci was limited: the MIC90 was 4 mg/l.
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Concurrently with administering a newly developed cephem derivative antibiotic (CEP), cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR, CS-807) dry syrup, to children with skin and soft tissue infections, activities of 7 drugs against a group of microorganisms were tested. The drugs tested included 4 drugs of the cephem group, R-3746, a Na-salt form of CPDX, cefaclor (CCL), cephalexin (CEX) and cefadroxil (CDX), and 3 drugs of the penicillin group, ampicillin (ABPC), methicillin (DMPPC) and cloxacillin (MCIPC). The bacterial strains tested were 71 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, all isolated from the above cases of pediatric infections. Inoculum sizes used in these tests were 10(6) and 10(8) cfu/ml. Ages of children in those cases to which the drug was administered ranged from 2 months to 15 years. A total of 66 cases were treated, including 60 cases of impetigo, 5 cases of subcutaneous abscess and 1 case of phlegmon. The drug was administered for an average of 6 days with a daily average dose level of 9.4 mg/kg divided into 3 doses except 1 case where a twice daily dose regimen was used. Clinical and bacteriological effects were examined, and the occurrence of adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory test results were recorded. The results of these tests are summarized below. 1. The activity test for R-3746 (Na-salt of CPDX) against 71 strains of S. aureus performed at an inoculum level of 10(8) cfu/ml showed 2 peaks of MIC values, one in a range of 1.56 to 6.25 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 100 micrograms/ml. The most prevalent MIC value was 3.13 micrograms/ml with MIC against 51 strains or 71.8% of the strains tested showing this value, and MIC values of 25 micrograms/ml or higher were obtained for 13 strains or 18.3% of the strains tested. The MIC80 was 6.25 micrograms/ml. Thus, R-3746 showed an antibacterial activity slightly weaker than MCIPC and DMPPC but similar to CCL, CEX and CDX. MIC values obtained at an inoculum level of 10(6) cfu/ml also had 2 peaks, one in a range of 1.56 to 3.13 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 25 micrograms/ml. Strains against which R-3746 had the MIC value of 3.13 micrograms/ml were the most numerous with 47 strains or 66.2%, and strains against which the MIC value of higher than 25 micrograms/ml was obtained were next with 13 strains or 18.3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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A new, simple, precise, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of cefpodoxime proxetil and clavulanic acid from pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was carried out on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB 5 mu C 18 (150x4.6 mm) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:50 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, 70:30 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 228 nm. Aspirin was used as an internal standard. The retention time of clavulanic acid, cefpodoxime proxetil and aspirin was 4.43, 6.44 and 5.6 min, respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in combined dosage forms.
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The efficacy and tolerance of cefpodoxime proxetil were compared with those of cefaclor in a multicentre, international, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adult outpatients suffering from acute sinusitis. At the end of treatment, cefpodoxime proxetil was more effective than cefaclor, producing complete clinical cure in 84% of cases (102/122) vs 68% of cases (77/114) in the cefaclor group (P = 0.01). The overall clinical efficacy (cure + improvement) was similar in the two groups with 95% (116/122) satisfactory responses in the cefpodoxime proxetil group and 93% (106/114) in the cefaclor group. Bacteriological response was similar with 95% eradication in the cefpodoxime proxetil group (55/58) vs 91% with cefaclor (63/69).
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The present study deals with spectrophotometric analysis of cefpodoxime proxetil by utilizing 4 different hydrotropic agents such as ammonium acetate (6 M), sodium citrate (1.25 M), sodium gycinate (1 M), sodium chloride (1 M), and urea (1 M).
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In Japan, oral antimicrobial agents are prophylactically used with oxytocics after normal delivery to prevent puerperal infections. The present study was designed to investigate bacterial floras in the endometrial cavity immediately after normal delivery and the effect of prophylactic use of anti-microbial agents on those floras. Sixty-six puerperae who underwent uneventful courses of pregnancy and delivery were subjected for this study. Intrauterine contents were collected on the first day and the fifth day of the puerperium and submitted to microbiological examinations. Cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR) was orally given to the puerperae for prophylaxis for 5 days after the initial sampling. On the puerperal first day, a total of 98 strains (71 strains of aerobic bacteria, 27 strains of anaerobic bacteria) was detected in the uteri of the 66 subjects. The incidences of aerobic Gram-positive cocci, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobic bacteria were 59.2%, 12.2%, 27.6% of the 98 strains, respectively. On the puerperal fifth day, a total of 82 strains (51 strains of aerobic bacteria and 31 strains of anaerobic bacteria) were detected in the uteri of the 66 subjects. The incidences of aerobic Gram-positive cocci, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobic bacteria were 52.5%, 8.6% and 37.7% of 82 strains, respectively.
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Twenty-four healthy volunteers and 24 patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate received an oral dose of 200 mg of cefpodoxime as proxetil ester in a fasting state. At the same time 3.235 g of iohexol, a renal contrast medium, was injected intravenously to indicate possible urinary contamination of the prostatic fluid. The subjects were divided into three groups each. After 3, 6 and 12 h the cefpodoxime concentrations were measured in plasma, urine, prostatic fluid and ejaculate in volunteers and in plasma, prostatic fluid and prostatic adenoma tissue in patients by a bioassay as well as by an HPLC method. In general, the concentrations measured by bioassay were higher than those by HPLC. The median plasma concentrations (bioassay) in volunteers (patients) after 3, 6 and 12 h were 2.28 (2.34) mg/l, 0.95 (1.17) mg/l and 0.12 (0.28) mg/l, respectively. The median ejaculate concentrations after 6 and 12 h were 0.95 mg/l and 0.19 mg/l, respectively. Only in three volunteers and in one patient prostatic fluid concentration without urinary contamination could be measured after 3 h with a median fluid to plasma ratio of 0.10. The prostatic adenoma tissue concentrations (bioassay) after 3 and 6 h were 0.50 mg/kg and 0.24 mg/kg with tissue to plasma ratios of 0.30 and 0.26, respectively. After 3 h about half of the volunteers and after 12 h about half of the patients showed no detectable concentration in ejaculate (volunteers) and prostatic tissue (patients), respectively. It was concluded that the cefpodoxime should be administered 3 to 6 h prior to surgery if used for perioperative prophylaxis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Cefpodoxime proxetil, a third generation, broad-spectrum, oral cephalosporin, was administered in single doses of 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg (dose expressed as cefpodoxime equivalents) and multiple doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg twice daily to healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite, cefpodoxime, and tolerance of cefpodoxime proxetil were determined. Results from the single-dose study indicate that cefpodoxime exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics over the dose range of 100 to 800 mg. This nonlinearity is primarily due to differences in dose-normalized AUC and Cmax, urinary recovery, and half-life between one or more of the higher-dose treatment groups and the 100-mg dosing group. After multiple-dose (twice daily) administration for 15 days, steady state is achieved on the second day of dosing, and there is no drug accumulation. Cefpodoxime pharmacokinetics are linear with dose over the clinically relevant dosing range of 100 to 400 mg. Microbiologic and HPLC plasma assay results are highly correlated, with close agreement between HPLC- and microbiologic-determined pharmacokinetic parameter estimates. Cefpodoxime proxetil was well tolerated in both studies. The most frequent medical events were related to gastrointestinal problems and consisted of transient loose stools in three subjects in the single-dose study and antibiotic-associated diarrhea in one subject in the multiple-dose study.
Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics. Many therapeutically useful drugs are metabolized by these proteins which impacts upon the efficiency of drug treatment. In some instances, CEs convert inactive prodrugs to active metabolites, a process that is essential for biological activity. Such compounds include the anticancer agents CPT-11 (3) and capecitabine (4), the antibiotics Ceftin (9) and Vantin, as well as the illicit street drug heroin (6). However, more commonly, CEs hydrolyze many esterified drugs to inactive products that are then excreted. Agents such as flestolol (11), meperidine (5), lidocaine (8) and cocaine (7), are all hydrolyzed and inactivated by these enzymes. Therefore the efficacy of esterified drugs will be dependent upon the distribution and catalytic activity of different CEs. In this review, we examine the structural aspects of CEs and their roles in drug detoxification and propose that modulation of CE activity may allow for improvements in, and potentiation of, drug efficacy.