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To discuss pharmacotherapy challenges encountered during treatment of a pediatric oncology patient with Burkholderia cepacia septicemia.
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is thought to develop only in the presence of antibiotic pressure. Here we show evidence to suggest that fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli has developed in the absence of fluoroquinolone use.
This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases.
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Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated from eye swab samples randomly obtained from 100 seropositive HIV/AIDS patients who reported to various anti-retroviral treatment clinics at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital both based in Benin City, Nigeria. Invitro antibiotic sensitivity patterns of strains before curing were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Resistance plasmid DNA of multidrug resistant strains was cured with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate and cured strains were again subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity testing. EcoRI and Hind III restriction endonuclease enzymes were used to make cuts on extracted plasmid DNA whose length sizes were then determined. A total of 36 (36.0%) strains made up of 27 (75.0%) Staphylococcus. aureus and 9 (25.0%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated of which 7 (19.4%) strains showed multidrug resistance to ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacine, gentamycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin and erythromycin. All seven multidrug resistant strains before curing, recorded 85.7%, 42.9%, 14.3% and 14.3% sensitivity in that decreasing order to ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin and gentamycin respectively. There was 0.0% sensitivity each to tetracycline and ampicillin. After curing, there was enhanced sensitivity of 100.0%, 85.7%, 28.6% and 71.4% respectively. There was also 28.6% and 57.1% improved sensitivity to tetracycline and ampicillin after curing. Before curing, there was 76.2% average resistance to all used antibiotics and this reduced to 47.6% after curing Staph. aureus plasmid DNA. In the case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there was an average resistance of 76.3% before curing which fell to 42.5% after curing. EcoRI restriction enzyme gave the plasmid DNA length of Staphylococcus aureus strain 04 as 4.0Kb and this size depended upon the distance between recognition sites. Isolation of 36 (36.0%) strains of both isolates from 100 eye swabs shows the danger these organisms portend to all categories of opticians. The cheapness and high sensitivity of gentamycin justifies its use as eye drops for treatment of some eye infections. Curing of plasmid DNA is an indication that if SDS is administered to the organisms in sublethal doses, it can lead to the elimination of plasmid DNA without adverse effect on the genomic DNA of the bacterial strains.
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Antibiotic resistance determination of Ureaplasma spp. (Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum) usually requires predetermination of bacterial titer, followed by antibiotic interrogation using a set bacterial input. This 96-well method allows simultaneous quantification of bacteria in the presence and absence of antibiotics. A method for determining precise MICs and a method for screening against multiple antibiotics using breakpoint thresholds are detailed. Of the 61 Ureaplasma-positive clinical isolates screened, one (1.6%) was resistant to erythromycin (MIC, >64 mg/liter) and clarithromycin (MIC, 4 mg/liter), one to ciprofloxacin (1.6%), and one to tetracycline/doxycycline (1.6%). Five isolates were also consistently found to have an elevated MIC of 8 mg/liter for erythromycin, but this may not represent true antibiotic resistance, as no mutations were found in the 23S rRNA operons or ribosome-associated L4 and L22 proteins for these strains. However, two amino acids (R66Q67) were deleted from the L4 protein of the erythromycin-/clarithromycin-resistant strain. The tetM genetic element was detected in the tetracycline-resistant clinical isolate as well as in the positive control Vancouver strain serotype 9. The tetM gene was also found in a fully tetracycline-susceptible Ureaplasma clinical isolate, and no mutations were found in the coding region that would explain its failure to mediate tetracycline resistance. An amino acid substitution (D82N) was found in the ParC subunit of the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolate, adjacent to the S83L mutation reported by other investigators in many ciprofloxacin-resistant Ureaplasma isolates. It is now possible to detect antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma within 48 h of positive culture without prior knowledge of bacterial load, identifying them for further molecular analysis.
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Patients with cleft lip and palate presenting with SCOM exhibited 100% positive cultures, with the highest frequency of Pseudomonas and enterobacteriaceae. With regard to the action of antibiotics, imipenem was effective against the four species of isolated microorganisms, followed by ciprofloxacin, which was effective against 75% of isolated species.
A total of 1247 consecutive and non-repetitive Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 13 Chinese teaching hospitals from March to August 2012. All isolates were sent to a central laboratory for reidentification and susceptibility testing. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) of meropenem and other antibacterial agents were determined by agar dilution method. And the data were analyzed with WHONET-5.6 software.
A total of 285 pairs of cases and matched controls were enrolled. "Ate undercooked beef" (OR, 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-4.95), "ate at restaurant" (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.23-3.93), and "poor utensils hygiene in the kitchen" (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.33-3.37) were the main independent risk factors for infection. Cases infected with a ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni strain were more likely than controls to have used antibiotics in the month before onset.
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Therapies shown to be effective in cystic fibrosis are often provided to patients with bronchiectasis, without definitive evidence of benefit. In recent years, there has been increased interest in validating and developing new therapies for patients with noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. While inhaled tobramycin improves microbiologic parameters, improvements in outcomes have been more difficult to demonstrate, in part due to the occurrence of bronchospasm in a significant minority of treated patients. Outcome data from studies of inhaled aztreonam and ciprofloxacin have not yet been reported, although the microbiologic data appear to be promising. Preliminary data regarding inhaled hyperosmolar agents such as hypertonic saline and mannitol are also promising, but these therapies cannot yet be recommended for routine therapy of patients with bronchiectasis. Macrolide antibiotics have anti-inflammatory properties in patients with chronic suppurative lung disease, through a variety of mechanisms. They have been proven to be beneficial in diffuse panbronchiolitis and are commonly being used in patients with bronchiectasis. Many small studies support their use in this population, although several had methodologic flaws. Thus, although chronic low-dose macrolide therapy is often used in these patients, more conclusive evidence is awaited.