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One hundred ninety-three frozen food samples collected in Korea various public bazaars from October 2006 to September 2007. Staphylococci were detected in 21.8% of frozen food samples. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 17 (8.8%) samples. Other staphylococci isolates were identified as S. warneri (7.8%), S. epidermidis (2.1%), S. xylosus (1.6%), S. eguorum (1%), and S. vitulinus (0.5%). Additionally, the antimicrobial susceptibility of 42 staphylococcal isolates to ten different antimicrobial agents was determined. The staphylococcal isolates demonstrated antimicrobial resistance to mupirocin (31%) oxacillin (14.3%), gentamicin (9.5%), teicoplanin (7.1%) and ciprofloxacin (7.1%). Most of the staphylococcal isolates showed high-level resistance to mupirocin (MIC(90), >128 microg/mL). Fortunately, most of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The total bacteria and Escherichia coli count were tested to investigate the microbiological quality of frozen foods. From 193 frozen food samples, 43 (22.3%), 34 (17.6%) and 19 (9.8%) samples were shown to be of unacceptable quality due to total bacteria, coliform and E. coli counts, respectively.
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All derivatives were active, though less than ciprofloxacin. 2 and 3 accumulated 2-3 fold more than ciprofloxacin in mouse macrophages but remained substrates for efflux by Mrp4. 4 was insensitive to NorA and Lde, accumulated approx 50-fold more than ciprofloxacin in macrophages, was barely affected by Mrp4, localized in the soluble fraction of cells, and was equipotent to ciprofloxacin against intracellular bacteria.
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This paper presents a study regarding the acquisition and analytical utilization of four and three-way data, acquired by following the excitation-emission fluorescence matrices at different elution times, in a fast liquid chromatographic HPLC procedure. This kind of data were implemented for first time for quantitative purposes, and applied to the determination of two fluoroquinolones in tap water samples, as a model to show the potentiality of the proposed strategy of four-way data generation. The data were modeled with three well-known algorithms: PARAFAC, U-PLS/RTL and MCR-ALS, the latter conveniently adapted to model third-order data. The second-order advantage was exploited when analyzing samples containing uncalibrated interferences. PARAFAC and MCR-ALS were the algorithms that better exploited the second-order advantage when no peak time shifts occurred among samples. On the other hand, when the quadrilinearity was lost due to the occurrence of temporal shifts, MCR-ALS furnished the better results. Relative error of prediction (REP%) obtained were 9.9% for ofloxacin and 14.0% for ciprofloxacin. In addition, a significant enhancement in the analytical figures of merit was observed when going from second- to third-order data (reduction of ca. 70% in LODs).
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This study involved active prospective surveillance to measure the incidence of DAIs, evaluate microbiological profiles, and investigate excessive mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 hospitals of Cairo University applying the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network case definitions for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), and central-line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Data were collected between March 2009 and May 2010.
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Inpatients who received a dose of ertapenem during 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2008, were reviewed. Pertinent patient clinical data was extracted from the pharmacy databases and assessed for appropriateness based on dose and indication. Relevant data from Network for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (Singapore) (NARSS) was extracted, to cross-correlate with ertapenem via time series to assess its impact on hospital epidemiology, trends of gram-negative resistance and consumption of other antibiotics from 2006 to mid-2010.
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To investigate prevalence and in vitro susceptibility trends of bacteria isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis from 2011 to 2014 in a tertiary care eye hospital in Saudi Arabia.
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Significant bacteria were detected from 9.2% of the total patients. The most common pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli (33.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%) and S. saprophyticus (14.3%). E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the highest percentage of resistance to ampicillin and amoxacillin (100%) however, all isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. S. saprophyticus and S. aureus were resistant to ampicillin (100%) and amoxicillin (66.7%). For all UTI isolates, least resistance was observed against drugs such as ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol.
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Severe bacterial keratitis (BK) typically requires intensive antimicrobial therapy. Empiric therapy is usually with a topical fluoroquinolone or fortified aminoglycoside-cephalosporin combination. Trials to date have not reached any consensus as to which antibiotic regimen most effectively treats BK.
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Corneal infection is one of the major causes of monocular blindness in developing countries.
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Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) are common yet serious infections that can potentially lead to substantial morbidity and morbidity. As an essential adjunct to source control, the goals of antimicrobial therapy are to promote patient recovery, reduce recurrence risk, and prevent antimicrobial resistance. The current international guidelines on the empirical treatment of community-acquired complicated IAIs were published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Surgical Infections Society (SIS) in 2010. These guidelines all recommend the use of a fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin) plus metronidazole for mild-to-moderate- and high-severity cases. Moxifloxacin monotherapy is recommended by the current IDSA/SIS guidelines for the treatment of mild-to-moderate complicated IAIs. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated a broad spectrum coverage of both aerobic and anaerobic pathogens, good tissue penetration into the gastrointestinal tract, and a good tolerability profile. Clinical data have demonstrated that moxifloxacin is at least as effective as other standard therapeutic regimens recommended by current clinical guidelines. Due to the high rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among isolates causing community-acquired IAIs in Asia, any fluoroquinolones (including moxifloxacin) are not recommended as drugs of choice for the empirical treatment of community-acquired IAIs, particularly in countries (China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam) with fluoroquinolone resistance rates among Escherichia coli isolates of >20%. Given the low rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant (<20%) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing (<10%) Enterobacteriaceae isolates associated community-acquired IAIs in Taiwan, it appears that moxifloxacin is considered an appropriate first-line therapy for patients with community-acquired complicated IAIs in this country.
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Enteric fevers contribute majorly to the burden of morbidity from infectious diseases in the developing world. Due to growing antibiotic resistance seen in their management, Salmonella and its various species are required to be periodically tested for sensitivity and resistance patterns, to guide the clinical management at the local level. This will also enable planning of antibiotic recycling wherever feasible.