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Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

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Ciprofloxacin is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. Ciprofloxacin oral liquid and tablets are also used to treat anthrax infection after inhalational exposure. This medicine is also used to treat and prevent plague (including pneumonic and septicemic plague). Ciprofloxacin may mask or delay the symptoms of syphilis. It is not effective against syphilis infections.

Other names for this medication:
Baycip, Cifran, Ciloxan, Cipro, Ciprofloxacina, Ciproxin, Ciproxina, Ciriax, Novidat

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Also known as:  Cipro.


Ciprofloxacin (generic name: ciprofloxacin; brand names include: Ciloxan / Ciplox / Cifran / Ciproxin / Proquin) is available in more than 100 countries and has been approved for the treatment of 14 types of infections, especially urinary tract infections (UTIs) such as acute uncomplicated cystitis, pyelonephritis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis.

Ciprofloxacin is also used for treating pneumonia; gonorrhea; infectious diarrhea; typhoid fever; anthrax; and bone, joint, and skin infections.

Ciprofloxacin's 19 year history includes: extensively studied and documented in over 37,000 publications; more than 100,000 patients enrolled in double blind trials around the world; prescribed for more than 340 million patients worldwide; extensive and unprecedented safety profile.


Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist any questions that you may have about this medicine.

Do not chew before swallowing. This medicine may be taken on an empty stomach or with food. Drink a full glass of water with each dose. Make sure you drink plenty of water or other fluids every day while you are taking Ciprofloxacin.

Antibiotics work best when the amount of medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, take this medicine at the same time each day. To clear up your infection completely, continue taking this medicine for the full course of treatment even if you begin to feel better in a few days.

Do not miss any doses. If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.


Seek emergency medical attention if an overdose is suspected or if the medication has been ingested.

Symptoms of a Ciprofloxacin and hydrocortisone otic overdose are not known.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


The risk of QT prolongation may be increased if you have certain medical conditions or are taking other drugs that may cause QT prolongation. Before using Ciprofloxacin, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the drugs you take and if you have any of the following conditions: certain heart problems (heart failure, slow heartbeat, QT prolongation in the EKG), family history of certain heart problems (QT prolongation in the EKG, sudden cardiac death).

This medication may rarely cause serious changes in blood sugar levels, especially if you have diabetes. Watch for symptoms of high blood sugar including increased thirst and urination. Ciprofloxacin may increase the blood sugar-lowering effects of the medication glyburide. Also watch for symptoms of low blood sugar such as sudden sweating, shaking, fast heartbeat, hunger, blurred vision, dizziness, or tingling hands/feet. Check your blood sugar regularly as directed by your doctor and report any changes. If you experience symptoms of low blood sugar, you may raise your blood sugar by using glucose tablets/gel or eating a quick source of sugar such as table sugar, honey, or candy, or drinking fruit juice or non-diet soda. Tell your doctor right away about the reaction and the use of this product. To help prevent low blood sugar, eat meals on a regular schedule, and do not skip meals. Your doctor may need to switch you to another antibiotic or adjust your diabetes medications if any reaction occurs.

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One hundred ninety-three frozen food samples collected in Korea various public bazaars from October 2006 to September 2007. Staphylococci were detected in 21.8% of frozen food samples. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 17 (8.8%) samples. Other staphylococci isolates were identified as S. warneri (7.8%), S. epidermidis (2.1%), S. xylosus (1.6%), S. eguorum (1%), and S. vitulinus (0.5%). Additionally, the antimicrobial susceptibility of 42 staphylococcal isolates to ten different antimicrobial agents was determined. The staphylococcal isolates demonstrated antimicrobial resistance to mupirocin (31%) oxacillin (14.3%), gentamicin (9.5%), teicoplanin (7.1%) and ciprofloxacin (7.1%). Most of the staphylococcal isolates showed high-level resistance to mupirocin (MIC(90), >128 microg/mL). Fortunately, most of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The total bacteria and Escherichia coli count were tested to investigate the microbiological quality of frozen foods. From 193 frozen food samples, 43 (22.3%), 34 (17.6%) and 19 (9.8%) samples were shown to be of unacceptable quality due to total bacteria, coliform and E. coli counts, respectively.

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All derivatives were active, though less than ciprofloxacin. 2 and 3 accumulated 2-3 fold more than ciprofloxacin in mouse macrophages but remained substrates for efflux by Mrp4. 4 was insensitive to NorA and Lde, accumulated approx 50-fold more than ciprofloxacin in macrophages, was barely affected by Mrp4, localized in the soluble fraction of cells, and was equipotent to ciprofloxacin against intracellular bacteria.

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This paper presents a study regarding the acquisition and analytical utilization of four and three-way data, acquired by following the excitation-emission fluorescence matrices at different elution times, in a fast liquid chromatographic HPLC procedure. This kind of data were implemented for first time for quantitative purposes, and applied to the determination of two fluoroquinolones in tap water samples, as a model to show the potentiality of the proposed strategy of four-way data generation. The data were modeled with three well-known algorithms: PARAFAC, U-PLS/RTL and MCR-ALS, the latter conveniently adapted to model third-order data. The second-order advantage was exploited when analyzing samples containing uncalibrated interferences. PARAFAC and MCR-ALS were the algorithms that better exploited the second-order advantage when no peak time shifts occurred among samples. On the other hand, when the quadrilinearity was lost due to the occurrence of temporal shifts, MCR-ALS furnished the better results. Relative error of prediction (REP%) obtained were 9.9% for ofloxacin and 14.0% for ciprofloxacin. In addition, a significant enhancement in the analytical figures of merit was observed when going from second- to third-order data (reduction of ca. 70% in LODs).

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This study involved active prospective surveillance to measure the incidence of DAIs, evaluate microbiological profiles, and investigate excessive mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 hospitals of Cairo University applying the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network case definitions for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), and central-line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Data were collected between March 2009 and May 2010.

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Inpatients who received a dose of ertapenem during 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2008, were reviewed. Pertinent patient clinical data was extracted from the pharmacy databases and assessed for appropriateness based on dose and indication. Relevant data from Network for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (Singapore) (NARSS) was extracted, to cross-correlate with ertapenem via time series to assess its impact on hospital epidemiology, trends of gram-negative resistance and consumption of other antibiotics from 2006 to mid-2010.

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To investigate prevalence and in vitro susceptibility trends of bacteria isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis from 2011 to 2014 in a tertiary care eye hospital in Saudi Arabia.

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Significant bacteria were detected from 9.2% of the total patients. The most common pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli (33.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%) and S. saprophyticus (14.3%). E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the highest percentage of resistance to ampicillin and amoxacillin (100%) however, all isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. S. saprophyticus and S. aureus were resistant to ampicillin (100%) and amoxicillin (66.7%). For all UTI isolates, least resistance was observed against drugs such as ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol.

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Severe bacterial keratitis (BK) typically requires intensive antimicrobial therapy. Empiric therapy is usually with a topical fluoroquinolone or fortified aminoglycoside-cephalosporin combination. Trials to date have not reached any consensus as to which antibiotic regimen most effectively treats BK.

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Corneal infection is one of the major causes of monocular blindness in developing countries.

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Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) are common yet serious infections that can potentially lead to substantial morbidity and morbidity. As an essential adjunct to source control, the goals of antimicrobial therapy are to promote patient recovery, reduce recurrence risk, and prevent antimicrobial resistance. The current international guidelines on the empirical treatment of community-acquired complicated IAIs were published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Surgical Infections Society (SIS) in 2010. These guidelines all recommend the use of a fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin) plus metronidazole for mild-to-moderate- and high-severity cases. Moxifloxacin monotherapy is recommended by the current IDSA/SIS guidelines for the treatment of mild-to-moderate complicated IAIs. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated a broad spectrum coverage of both aerobic and anaerobic pathogens, good tissue penetration into the gastrointestinal tract, and a good tolerability profile. Clinical data have demonstrated that moxifloxacin is at least as effective as other standard therapeutic regimens recommended by current clinical guidelines. Due to the high rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among isolates causing community-acquired IAIs in Asia, any fluoroquinolones (including moxifloxacin) are not recommended as drugs of choice for the empirical treatment of community-acquired IAIs, particularly in countries (China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam) with fluoroquinolone resistance rates among Escherichia coli isolates of >20%. Given the low rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant (<20%) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing (<10%) Enterobacteriaceae isolates associated community-acquired IAIs in Taiwan, it appears that moxifloxacin is considered an appropriate first-line therapy for patients with community-acquired complicated IAIs in this country.

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Enteric fevers contribute majorly to the burden of morbidity from infectious diseases in the developing world. Due to growing antibiotic resistance seen in their management, Salmonella and its various species are required to be periodically tested for sensitivity and resistance patterns, to guide the clinical management at the local level. This will also enable planning of antibiotic recycling wherever feasible.

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ciprofloxacin dosage iv 2015-03-18

Exposing the E. coli strain TG1 to CIP starting at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.012 microg/ml and at increasing doses for 40 min increased the DNA fragmentation progressively. DNA damage started to be detectable at the MIC dose. At a dose of 1 microg/ml of CIP, DNA damage was visualized clearly immediately after processing, and the DNA fragmentation increased Keflex 250 Mg During Pregnancy progressively with the antibiotic incubation time. The level of DNA damage was much higher when the bacteria were taken from liquid LB broth than from solid LB agar. CIP treatment produced a progressively slower rate of DNA damage in bacteria in the stationary phase than in the exponentially growing phase. Removing the antibiotic after the 40 min incubation resulted in progressive DSB repair activity with time. The magnitude of DNA repair was inversely related to CIP dose and was noticeable after incubation with CIP at 0.1 microg/ml but scarce after 10 microg/ml. The repair activity was not strictly related to viability. Four E. coli strains with identified mechanisms of reduced sensitivity to CIP were assessed using this procedure and produced DNA fragmentation levels that were inversely related to MIC dose, except those with very high MIC dose.

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Ciprofloxacin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in S. aureus Newman driven nasal inflammation. Inhibitory Metrolag Drug effects were comparable to those of prednisolone and clarithromycin.

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Fifty-four healthy dogs were screened in Portugal for the presence of nasal Ilosone Suspension Infantil Dosis methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage. Sixteen MRSA isolates (one/sample) were recovered from nasal samples of dogs, and they were typed by molecular methods (S. aureus protein A [spa]-, multilocus sequence typing-, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec-typing). MRSA isolates were investigated for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents by disk-diffusion test. The presence of resistance genes and of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (lukF-lukS) was analyzed by PCR. Four different spa-types were identified among our MRSA isolates (t032, t432, t747, and t4726), with t032 as the most frequently detected. The sequence-type ST22 was identified in four tested MRSA isolates with different spa-types. All 16 isolates presented the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV. Most of MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin (94%-100%), and no resistance was identified to chloramphenicol, mupirocin, and trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole. The ermC and tetM resistance genes were detected in all MRSA isolates. The amino acid changes Ser84Leu in GyrA protein and Ser80Phe in GrlA protein were the most prevalent ones in our MRSA isolates. None of the MRSA strains carried the lukF-lukS genes. The results presented in this study indicate that healthy dogs may be a reservoir of MRSA that could be transmitted to humans by direct contact.

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Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Of all isolates tested, over 94% contained seven virulence associated genes (flaA, cadF, racR, dnaJ, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC). All isolates were classified into 39 types by PFGE clustering with 90% similarity. Some chicken isolates were incorporated into some PFGE types of human isolates. MLST analysis for the 39 human isolates and 38 chicken isolates resulted in 14 and 23 sequence types (STs), respectively, of which 10 STs were new. STs overlapped in both chicken and human isolates included ST-21, ST-48, ST-50, ST-51, and ST-354, of which ST-21 was the predominant ST in both human and chicken isolates. Through combined analysis of PFGE types and STs, three chicken isolates were clonally related to the three human isolates associated with food poisoning (VII-ST-48, XXII-ST-354, and XXVIII-ST-51). They were derived from geographically same or distinct districts. Remarkably, clonal spread of food poisoning pathogens between animals and humans was confirmed by population genetic analysis. Consequently, contamination of campylobacters with quinolone resistance and potential virulence genes in poultry production and consumption Glevo 750 Mg Tab may increase the risk of infections in humans.

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Salmonellosis continues to be a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. The formation of focal abscesses may occur following either hematogenous or lymphatic spread. There are large number of serious and life-threatening clinical manifestations of Salmonella spp., ranging from osteomyelitis to infective endocarditis and meningitis. However, even though Salmonella epidydimo-orchitis is a relatively rare clinical manifestion, it can present, most often in male babies and adolescent boys, following contact with nontyphoidal Salmonella. Here, we report a case of epididymo-orchitis due to Salmonella Paratyphi A that presented in an otherwise healthy 63-year-old man in order to highlight this organism's unusual clinical presentation. In countries such as India, where Salmonella infections are endemic, Avelox Antibiotic Allergy a high index of suspicion should be always be maintained and the possibility of a Salmonella infection at an aberrant site where it is hardly expected should not be ruled out.

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Hemodialysis, Ditrim 120 Mg placement of bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy tubes, administration of ciprofloxacin, ascorbic acid and bethanechol.

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A rapid, simple, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of four antimicrobials commonly used in aquaculture, namely ciprofloxacin (CPX), trimethoprim (TMP), sulphadimethoxine (SDM) and florphenicol (FLOR) in fish tissues. The LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Sample preparation involves simple liquid extraction step followed by post-extraction clean-up step with n-hexane. The purified extracts were chromatographed on Agilent Poroshell 120 EC, C18 (50 mm × 3 mm, 2.7 μm) column by pumping an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water:0.1% formic acid in methanol (20:80, by volume) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. A detailed validation of the method was performed as per FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 1-100 ng/g for both CPX and TMP, 0.5-100 ng/g for SDM and 1-50 ng/g for FLOR. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the results were within the acceptable limits. A run time of 1.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze multiple fish tissue samples per day. The developed assay method was successfully applied for the detection of antimicrobials in real fish tissue samples obtained from different fish farms. Nisamox Tablets 250mg

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OTO-201 demonstrated sustained release of ciprofloxacin in the middle ear compartment for days to Rhodogil Farmacia Online approximately 2 weeks depending on the dose. The substantial C(max) values and steady drug exposure yielded by OTO-201 were in contrast to the pulsatile short lasting exposure seen with Ciprodex and Cetraxal. OTO-201 was also effective in a preclinical chinchilla model of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced otitis media. The degree of cure was comparable to that afforded by Ciprodex and Cetraxal. There was no evidence of middle or inner ear pathology in guinea pigs treated with OTO-201, unlike Ciprodex and Cetraxal, which both demonstrated mild cochlear ototoxicity. No adverse effects of the poloxamer 407 vehicle were noted.

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Clindamycin was the most active antibiotic against S. constellatus (minimum inhibitory concentration at 90% [MIC90] 0.25 mg/L), and amoxicillin was most active against S. intermedius (MIC90 0.125 mg/L). A total of 30% of the S. constellatus and S. intermedius clinical isolates were resistant in vitro to doxycycline, 98% were only intermediate in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and 90% were resistant to metronidazole at 16 mg/L.

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This is the first report in Tunisia of qnrD determinant and tow new gyrB muations in M. morganii. The nosocomial infection due to this proteeae invites further study of its epidemiologic evolution.

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Ciprofloxacin decreased proliferation of HT-29 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. This was mediated by accumulation of HT-29 cells into the S-phase but without any effect on apoptosis or necrosis. Additionally, ciprofloxacin enhanced the antiproliferative effect of 5-FU. Interestingly, ciprofloxacin was found to up-regulate TGF-beta1 production by HT-29 cells and its anti-proliferative effect was abolished when TGF-beta1 was blocked. Confirming this mechanism further, ciprofloxacin had no effect on Caco-2, a human colonic epithelial cell line that lacks functional TGF-beta1 receptors.

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To describe and characterize isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis associated to an outbreak of food-borne diseases in Popayán, Cauca.