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The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of silver nanoparticles on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their interactions with several conventional antibiotics and ability to induce a stress response were examined. Interactions between silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and antibiotics against free-living cells and biofilm of P. aeruginosa were studied using the chequerboard method and time-kill assays. The ability of AgNPs to induce a stress response was determined by evaluation of cellular levels of the DnaK and HtpG chaperones using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Synergistic activity against free-living P. aeruginosa between AgNPs and ampicillin, streptomycin, rifampicin and tetracycline, but not oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, meropenem or ceftazidime, was demonstrated by the chequerboard method. No such interactions were observed against P. aeruginosa biofilm. The results of time-kill assays confirmed synergy only for the AgNPs-streptomycin combination. AgNPs induced the expression of chaperone DnaK. No induction of the HtpG chaperone was detected. In conclusion, AgNPs not only display potent bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa, but also act synergistically with several conventional antibiotics to enhance their effect against free-living bacteria as determined by the chequerboard method. The time-kill assay proved synergy between AgNPs and streptomycin only. The ability of AgNPs to induce the major chaperone protein DnaK may influence bacterial resistance to antimicrobials.
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To compare the frequency of infection after transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSBP) using prophylactic ciprofloxacin with or without adding cefuroxime.
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Combination therapy with several antibiotics is one strategy that has been applied in order to limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We compared the de novo evolution of resistance during combination therapy with the β-lactam ceftazidime and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin with the resistance evolved after single-drug exposure. Combination therapy selected for mutants that displayed broad-spectrum resistance, and a major resistance mechanism was mutational inactivation of the repressor gene mexR that regulates the multidrug efflux operon mexAB-oprM. Deregulation of this operon led to a broad-spectrum resistance phenotype that decreased susceptibility to the combination of drugs applied during selection as well as to unrelated antibiotic classes. Mutants isolated after single-drug exposure displayed narrow-spectrum resistance and carried mutations in the MexCD-OprJ efflux pump regulator gene nfxB conferring ciprofloxacin resistance, or in the gene encoding the non-essential penicillin-binding protein DacB conferring ceftazidime resistance. Reconstruction of resistance mutations by allelic replacement and in vitro fitness assays revealed that in contrast to single antibiotic use, combination therapy consistently selected for mutants with enhanced fitness expressing broad-spectrum resistance mechanisms.
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A total of 101 corneal scrapping samples were tested for routine culture and antibiotic susceptibility at the pathology department of TIO Nepal from April to October 2014. Microorganisms were identified by using standard microbiological procedures following the manual of American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and their antibiotic susceptibility test, performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method in conformity with the CLSI guideline.
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A method to determine five fluoroquinolones (FQs), namely, rufloxacin (RUF), ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENO), gatifloxacin (GAT) and moxifloxacin (MOX), in acidic buffer by capillary electrophoresis (CE)-capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) technique is presented. Separation was carried out in a fused-silica capillary (42 cm x 50 microm) using a buffer composed of 10 mM tartaric acid, 14 mM sodium acetate and 15% (v/v) methanol at pH 3.8. The RSDs of the migration times and peak areas were 0.65% and 12.3% (intraday), 1.28% and 8.8% (interday), respectively. CE-C(4)D in combination with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) as clean-up and preconcentration procedure, allows detection of the FQs in fortified chicken muscle samples with detection limits of 6.8-11.7 ng/g. This method shows potential in rapid determination of FQs in samples with complex matrix.
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Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) is responsible for cases of refractory and relapsing peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, probably by biofilm formation on the catheter. The ISPD recommends catheter removal in such cases. Urokinase has been used to dissolve the biofilm lining the PD catheter, thus favoring antibiotic efficacy. Rifampicin has shown its efficacy in penetrating CoNS biofilm.
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A young (32 years old), eumenorrheic (menstrual cycle of >25 and <35 days) woman complained of a 6-month intermittent scarce lubrication during intercourse and a sensation of a small intravaginal "extraneous" body. The patient was repeatedly assessed with a detailed history, with a bimanual pelvic examination and with bi- and tridimensional ultrasonographic and color Doppler analyses of the urethrovaginal space.
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Of 338 isolates, MRSA rate was 50.0%. Among MRSA isolates (n = 169), 81.7% were associated to MLST CC5, 68.8% had spa t149/SCCmec I, and more than 85% were co-resistant to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin and gentamicin; 8.9% (n = 15) were associated to MLST CC8, 14 of them had spa t148/SCCmec IV, and more than 70% were co-resistant to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and erythromycin. Among MSSA isolates (n = 169), there was a higher diversity of spa types (n = 56) compared to MRSA isolates (n = 17), 27.2% were associated to MLST CC8, 23.7% were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin resistance exceeded 20%.
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Over the study period from 1994 to 2008, 189 patients in this cohort were hospitalized for hyperkalemia within 14 days of receiving a study antibiotic. Compared with amoxicillin, the use of TMP-SMX was associated with a substantially greater risk of hyperkalemia requiring hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio, 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 9.4). No such risk was identified with ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. When dosing was considered, the association was greater at higher doses of TMP-SMX. When the primary analysis was repeated in a cohort of non-beta-blocker users, the risk of hyperkalemia comparing TMP-SMX to amoxicillin was not significantly different from that found among beta-blocker users.
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Ninety-three patients (100 eyes) diagnosed with PANDO, categorized as acute, chronic dacryocystitis, or simple epiphora, were prospectively enrolled. Lacrimal sac contents were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi. Cultured organisms were identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for aerobic bacteria.
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Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and is known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. The drug susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) may vary. AIMs and Objectives: This study was carried out to determine and compare the drug susceptibility patterns in nosocomial MSSA and MRSA.
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To study the antibiotic susceptibility of foodborne Listeria monocytogenes in China.