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The additive effect of chromosomally mediated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms and the qepA2 gene led to clinical levels of fluoroquinolone resistance. Under competitive conditions, the qepA2 gene had a biological cost in E. coli that was compensated for by the presence of an additional deletion in the marR gene.
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A new spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the quantification of danofloxacin (DANO) and difloxacin (DIFLO), in the presence of the primary metabolite of difloxacin, with sarafloxacin (SARA) as interference, in chicken tissue samples. The method is based on second-order multivariate calibration, applying parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), to the excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of these compounds. High overlapping of the signals and influence of matrix effects were observed. To solve the problem, the standard addition method was used. Chemical variables were optimized. The measured EEMs of the analytes, as analytical signals, allowed their quantification in chicken tissue samples. Solid phase extraction was used for the extraction of the analytes in real samples. The range of concentration examined varied from 30 to 100 ng g(-1) for danofloxacin, and from 100 to 200 ng g(-1) for difloxacin. Both analytes can be analyzed individually, and the binary mixture can be resolved, with recoveries comprising between 88.7 and 106.6%.
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The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, minocycline, tobramycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were determined against 38 B. cepacia complex strains. MICs and minimal biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using a traditional broth microdilution method and a novel resazurin-based viability staining, respectively. The bactericidal effects of the investigated antibiotics (using antibiotic concentrations corresponding to 10 x MIC; except for tobramycin, for which a final concentration of 4 x MIC was tested) on stationary phase planktonic cultures and on 24-h-old biofilms were evaluated using conventional plate count methods.
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All six M. fortuitum isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin, but only four of six were susceptible to doxycycline. All six M. smegmatis isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfanilamide. A single isolate from the 12, a M. smegmatis isolate, was susceptible to clarithromycin. The fractional inhibitory concentration of each drug ranged from 0.64 to 1.84, indicating that neither synergism nor antagonism was evident. All 12 isolates were resistant to cefovecin. The clofazimine MIC50 to inhibit isolate growth was approximately 3.3 μg/mL for both strains.
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The infected dentin treated with 1.5% NaOCl or 500 mg/mL of DAP provided complete eradication of bacterial biofilm. Furthermore, the infected dentin treated with 2% CHX, Ca(OH)2, or 1 mg/mL of DAP had a comparable antibiofilm effect, but they were not able to completely eradicate bacterial biofilm. No significant difference in the antibiofilm effect was observed between 500 mg/mL of DAP, Ca(OH)2, 1.5% NaOCl, and 2% CHX.
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Our aim is to elucidate shifts in the bacterial spectrum colonising burn wounds and corresponding antibiotic susceptibilities during a 20-year study period.
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The susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) to linezolid and ciprofloxacin was evaluated by using resazurin as a growth indicator. The assay with resazurin supplemented medium performed as well as its addition to the medium at reading time and was efficient for the determination for the susceptibility profile in RGM.
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A total of 724 isolates were recovered from cultures obtained from 863 children patients giving an isolation rate of 83.8%. The male and female isolate ratio was (1.26:1.0). The most common bacterial species isolated were S. aureus (59.9%) followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.4%), Pseudomonas (7.7%), E. coli (5.9%), Klebsiella spp. (3.1%) and Proteus spp. (0.9%). The most of S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (94.0%) and gentamicin (87.3%). Streptococcus organisms were susceptible in highest percentage to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (87.1%). Gram-negative isolates were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin (83.5%) and gentamicin (79.8%). Among all isolates, vancomycin was the most effective antimicrobial agent with susceptibility rate of 83.9%, whereas cefixime showed the lowest susceptibility rate of 39.7%.
In this study, 2275 clinical isolates of 49 species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated in The Netherlands were subjected to standardised drug susceptibility testing using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar dilution method. Clarithromycin and rifabutin were most active, with 87% and 83% of all isolates, respectively, being susceptible. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (44%) and amikacin (32%) was limited and was mostly restricted to Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium fortuitum and phylogenetically related species. Susceptibility to isoniazid (0.5%), rifampicin (37%), ethambutol (35%) and streptomycin (33%) was rare; susceptibility to cycloserine, clofazimine and prothionamide was generally restricted to slow growers, although prothionamide also had activity against M. fortuitum and related species. Significant discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo activity exist. To improve the utility of drug susceptibility testing, the selection of drugs should be changed to more drugs with proven clinical efficacy correlating with in vitro susceptibility.
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To report an unusual case of calcified uterine myoma which was unnoticed during pregnancy and made so obstructive renal failure few days after the delivery.
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The emergence of a clonal group of gonococci showing decreased susceptibility to cefixime in England and Wales highlights the need for continued surveillance.