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Thirty-three percent of the cultures were contaminated with other bacteria. Seven children had at least one sputum culture positive for one mycobacterium. Five children had only one positive AFB culture. Their clinical status and lung function remained stable during follow-up. Two teenagers with severe lung disease had several positive AFB smears and cultures for Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus. The isolation of M. chelonae and M. abscessus was associated with a clinical and functional decline. Clarithromycin treatment resulted in temporary improvement with the disappearance of the mycobacteria after 6 months of treatment. This prospective study shows an incidence of 2.3% for positive cultures. The prevalence was 6.6% for mycobacterial colonization but only 1.9% for mycobacterial lung disease in our pediatric population.
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Increasing antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) which is associated with diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, has made alternative treatments necessary. This study compares the efficacy of adding N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to standard regimen for H. pylori eradication.
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Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium that can cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical presentations of infection are the appearance of suppurative and ulcerated skin nodules. For the diagnosis, samples collected from suspected cases must be processed under the appropriate conditions, because M. haemophilum requires lower incubation temperatures and iron supplementation in order to grow in culture. In this case report, we describe the occurrence of skin lesions in a kidney transplant recipient, caused by M. haemophilum, associated with acupuncture treatment. The diagnosis was established by direct smear and culture of material aspirated from cutaneous lesions. Species identification was achieved by characterization of the growth requirements and by partial sequencing of the hsp65 gene. The patient was successfully treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for 12 months. Considering that the number of patients receiving acupuncture treatment is widely increasing, the implications of this potential complication should be recognized, particularly in immunosuppressed patients.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral gram-negative bacterium, characterized by positive urease, catalase and oxidase activity. The complete resolution of the full genome has elucidated the biological characteristics, the pathogenicity, and the bacterial evolution. The infection is acquired in childhood by oral-oral transmission in developed countries, probably an intra-familiar transmission. The infection has an association with chronic histological gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma in the stomach. All patients with H. pylori infection have histological gastritis and most of them remain asymptomatic for life. Only a minority of the infected individuals occurs ulceration or gastric cancer. Cure of the infection prevents recurrence of peptic ulcer without persistent treatments against ulceration. Concerning gastric cancer, WHO concluded in 1994 that H. pylori is a definite carcinogen in humans on the basis of epidemiological studies. Evidences that the infection leads to the development of gastric cancer have been accumulated in animal models as well as in vitro experimental studies. Such clinical diversities are caused by variations of H. pylori pathogenicity, host susceptibility, environmental factors including foods and those interactions. At present, an eradication treatment of H. pylori, combined with a proton-pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) is restrictedly approved in the patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer by Japanese health care system.
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To report the predisposing factors, clinical profile, and treatment outcome of patients with keratitis that was caused by a rare species of Nocardia.
On an intention-to-treat basis, clearance of infection was achieved in 17 of 32 (53%; 95% CI: 35-71%) evaluable patients receiving BTM and 32 of 46 (70%, 54-82%) patients receiving LAM (p = 0.16). Metronidazole resistance was found in 32 of 65 (49%) patients in whom H. pylori was isolated by culture. On a per-protocol basis, of patients who had metronidazole sensitive strains of H. pylori 23 of 24 (96%) cleared infection after therapy with either BTM or LAM, compared with 14 of 24 (58%) who were metronidazole resistant (p = 0.004). Clarithromycin resistance was not found in 45 patients tested.
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After metabolization, erdosteine (a mucoactive drug) produces an active metabolite (Met I) with an SH group that is capable of opening disulphide bonds, including those of pilin, a protein of bacterial fimbriae. This induces stereochemical conformational changes that interfere with the binding of bacterial adhesins (fimbriae) to receptors on eukaryotic cells. At subinhibitory concentrations, the macrolide clarithromycin inhibits the expression of adhesins on bacterial cell surfaces. The addition of 5 and 10 microg/ml of Met I to 1/8, 1/16 and 1/32 MIC of clarithromycin potentiated the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus adhesiveness to human mucosal cells in comparison with the antibiotic alone. This finding opens up a new possibility of interfering with bacterial adhesiveness and its resulting pathogenicity not only by using antibiotics but also by means of their combination with agents devoid of antibacterial activity.
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All regimens were well tolerated and achieved comparable and very high cure rates. Statistical or clinical relevant differences were not detected. All three regimens can be used as initial anti-Helicobacter therapy and can compete with 7-day PPI-triple therapies. More data are needed on the influence of antimicrobial resistance on the performance of individual triple therapies. The local prevalence of antimicrobial resistance will determine which regimen should be chosen for a certain geographical area.
Fourteen-day therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin has been shown to have a high Helicobacter pylori eradication rate (> 90%) in U.S. trials. The aim of this study was to determine the H. pylori eradication rate of a ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple regimen of shorter duration (10 days), which has been shown to be effective in Europe.
Patients visiting community-based outpatient clinics.