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The treatment of localized juvenile periodontitis has been previously described in the literature, utilizing primarily a long-term (2 to 6 week) antibiotic regimen, notably tetracycline. This case report of juvenile periodontitis with extensive bone loss describes a short-term treatment (8 days), using a combination of two antibiotics and mechanical debridement. Clinical treatment included instruction of proper oral hygiene techniques. Initial scaling and root planing were performed to remove supragingival and subgingival accretions, followed by 2-month maintenance recalls. Pre- and postoperative radiographs, taken one year after the treatment, are used to document the evidence of natural bone regeneration. The learning objective of this article is to present an effective method of treatment-a debridement/antibiotic combination, followed by bone regeneration.
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A significant inoculum-size effect has been observed with piperacillin-tazobactam, and has been associated with beta-lactamase production in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. This association has not been previously studied in the case of amoxycillin-clavulanate. Piperacillin-tazobactam and amoxycillin-clavulanate were compared, using high inocula of susceptible strains either harbouring ESBLs or not. Two non-ESBL-producing and 15 amoxycillin-clavulanate-susceptible and piperacillin-tazobactam-susceptible ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates, and their respective transconjugants, were tested in dilution susceptibility tests using standard and 100-fold higher inocula. Three ESBL-producing strains and E. coli ATCC 25922 were selected for time-kill studies using standard and high initial inocula. At high inocula, MICs of piperacillin increased >eight-fold for non-ESBL-producing strains, and MICs of piperacillin-tazobactam (8:1 ratio or with tazobactam fixed at 4 mg/L) increased>eight-fold for all ESBL-producing strains. However, amoxycillin MICs were not affected by a high inoculum with non-ESBL-producing strains, whereas the MICs of amoxycillin-clavulanate (2:1 and 4:1) increased
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Early transition from parenteral to oral antibiotic therapy switch therapy play a major role in treatment because of adverse reactions of long parenteral therapy. In the prospective, comparative and randomized clinical study the efficacy of two treatment regimens were analyzed: XICLAV (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid): parenteral regiment with early transition to oral therapy and parenteral regimen in patients with bacterial infections without transition to the oral dosage form, on the other hand. In our study we've analyzed 240 hospitalized patients in the Clinic of infectious Diseases in Tuzla and Sarajevo too, so in the Institution for infectious diseases in Zenica. The mean age of our patients was 39.6 years, 70.8% females. The major (50.5%) patients had urinary or respiratory tract infectious (bacterial pneumonia 38.8%) but several patients have had skin infections and sepsis. The first 120 patients were initially treated by Xiclav administered parenterally i.v. (adults at a dose of 3 x 1.2 gr i.v.; the children at a dose of 3 x 30 mg/kg) with early oral switch therapy (adults at a dose of 3 x 625 mg per os; the children at a dose of 3 x 25-50 mg/kg); whereas the others (120 patients) were treated parenterally by the regimen mentioned above. The mean length of i.v. therapy and hospitalization in the i.v. group was 4.12/10.21 days respectively (p > 0.05). The clinical efficacy switch of both therapeutic regimens was comparable. The resolution of all clinical symptoms and laboratory signs of infections was noted at 69% patients of both groups, with significant improvements at noted at 69% patients of both groups, with significant improvements at 21% patients and at 10% patients showed clinical failure. The tolerability of Xiclav was very good. The adverse reactions during treatment were observed at 5.2% patients. This study noticed satisfied clinical and bacterial efficacy so did tolerability of Xiclav in the treatment of bacteriological infections. Xiclav apply early transition from parenteral to oral therapy.
Patients who had prophylaxis had lower ASEPSIS wound scores on days 3, 5 and 7 (P = 0.043, P = 0.032 and P = 0.003 respectively), and lower total ASEPSIS scores (median (interquartile range) 3 (0-9) versus 6 (0-15); P = 0.013). They were less likely to consult their general practitioner (16.0 versus 24.3 per cent; P = 0.040) or to receive postoperative antibiotics (4.7 versus 13.5 per cent; P = 0.002) for wound-related problems. Wound outcomes were worse with higher body mass index (odds ratio (OR) 0.92 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 0.87 to 0.97); P = 0.005) and current smoking (OR 0.5 (0.3 to 0.9); P = 0.033). Prophylactic antibiotics conferred satisfactory wound healing (OR 2.2 (95 per cent c.i. 1.3 to 3.6); P = 0.003).
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Ambulatory patients with pneumonia were identified at the Children's Medical Center of Dallas, TX. Children age 6 months to 16 years with radiographic and clinical evidence of pneumonia were enrolled and randomized to receive either azithromycin suspension for 5 days or a 10-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for those <5 years or erythromycin estolate suspension for those > or = 5 years. Blood culture was obtained in all patients and we obtained nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs for culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae and nasopharyngeal swabs for viral direct fluorescent antibody and culture. Acute and convalescent serum specimens were tested for antibodies to C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Patients were evaluated 10 to 37 days later when repeat specimens for serology, PCR and culture were obtained. For comparative purposes healthy children attending the well-child clinic had nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs obtained for PCR and culture for C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae.
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Retropharyngeal cellulitis/abscess has not been recognized as a manifestation of group B streptococcal disease in the pediatric group beyond neonates. The purpose of this paper is to present a previously healthy 3-year-old boy with a retropharyngeal abscess due to group B Streptococcus which was successfully treated by surgical incision and drainage in combination with amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy.
The effect on the nasopharyngeal bacterial flora of 10 days of amoxycillin-clavulanate or cefdinir antimicrobial therapy was studied in 50 children with acute otitis media. Before therapy, 17 potential pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) were isolated from the nasopharynx of 14 (56%) of those treated with amoxycillin-clavulanate, and 20 potential pathogens were recovered from 15 (60%) of those treated with cefdinir. Following therapy, at days 12-15, the number of potential pathogens was reduced to a similar extent with both therapies, to three in those treated with amoxycillin-clavulanate and two in those treated with cefdinir. However, the number of potential pathogens rebounded faster in those treated with amoxycillin-clavulanate as compared with cefdinir in the two subsequent specimens taken at days 30-35 and 60-65 (12 and 18 in the amoxycillin-clavulanate group, and six and nine in the cefdinir group, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Differences between the groups were also noted in the recovery of organisms with interfering capability. Immediately following amoxycillin-clavulanate therapy, the number of interfering organisms declined from 54 to 13, while following cefdinir treatment their number was reduced from 59 to 39 (P < 0.001). The differences between the two therapy groups persisted in the two later specimens taken at days 30-35 and 60-65 (25 and 38 in the amoxycillin-clavulanate group, and 52 and 51 in the cefdinir group, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). This study illustrates the potential beneficial effect of using a narrow-spectrum antimicrobial that selectively spares the interfering organisms while eliminating pathogens. The benefit of such therapy is the prevention of reacquisition of pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx. In contrast, utilization of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial is associated with prolonged absence of inhibitory organisms and rapid recolonization with pathogens.
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The per-protocol (PP) population at follow-up (Days 18-39) comprised 114 patients receiving co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg and 116 receiving co-amoxiclav 875/125 mg. Clinical success at follow-up (primary efficacy endpoint) in the clinical PP population was 94.7% (108/114) for co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg versus 88.8% (103/116) for co-amoxiclav 875/125 mg [treatment difference (TD) = 5.9%, 95% CI: 1.1, 13.0]. Bacteriological success in the bacteriology PP population at follow-up was 85.0% (17/20) for co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg versus 77.3% (17/22) for co-amoxiclav 875/125 mg (TD = 7.7%, 95% CI: 15.8, 31.2). Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) were isolated in three patients (including two with bacteraemia) in the co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg group (amoxicillin MICs 8 mg/L, penicillin MICs 4 mg/L) and one in the comparator group; all were clinical and bacteriological successes. Co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg and co-amoxiclav 875/125 mg were associated with adverse events leading to withdrawal in 6.3% and 6.2% of patients, respectively.
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Pneumococcal conjugate vaccinated children, age 6-36 months, enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study experiencing rAOM<1 month after completing amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy were studied. AOM episodes occurred between June 2006 and November 2012. Multilocus sequence typing was used to genotype isolates.
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A review on the etiological profile of urinary tract infections in childhood and the sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens in Spain is presented. Escherichia coli continues to be the main etiological agent of urinary tract infection in childhood. Consequently, its sensitivity pattern will usually determine the choice of empirical therapy. The predominance of E. coli is reduced in certain circumstances, in which the presence of other microorganisms is increased. However, the clinical information available at diagnosis does not allow accurate identification of the etiology; only staining and microscopic urine examination can help in treatment selection. In Spain, E. coli presents a high percentage of resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole, whereas second- and third-generation cephalosporins, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides and amoxicillin-clavulanate maintain high sensitivity. In some areas, amoxicillin-clavulanate and first-generation cephalosporins show high levels of resistance, which can limit their empirical use.
Randomly hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections admitted to three pulmonary departments of the Golnik Institute for Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis were enrolled in an open, comparative clinical study of Amoksiklav and Amoxicillin. A group of 26 patients with a mean age of 64.5 years presenting with pneumonia (13), exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (12) and bronchiectasis (1) were given Amoskilav, while another 20 patients with a mean age of 61.4 years presenting with pneumonia (9), exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (5), bronchiectasis (5) and sinusitis (1) received Amoxicillin. The efficacy of treatment was assessed by bacteriological findings of respiratory tract specimens, sputum and blood leucocytosis, macroscopic purulence of sputum and the presence of fever. The bacteriological findings are shown in detail. Leucocytosis and macroscopic purulence of sputum significantly improved on Amoksiklav therapy (p less than 0.05) while with Amoxicillin there was no significant improvement. With respect to the presence of fever, there was no significant difference between Amoksiklav and Amoxicillin. The overall clinical and bacteriological response was very good and good in 88.5% of patients treated with Amoksiklav compared to 75% of those receiving Amoxicillin. Additionally, 1000 pathogenic strains were tested for their response to Amoksiklav and Amoxicillin. Amoksiklav proved superior against strains of Branhamella catarrhalis, E. coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci and K. pneumoniae (p less than 0.01).