A total of 184 bacterial strains were isolated and identified, comprising grampositive facultative anaerobes (68%), gramnegative strict anaerobes (30%) and grampositive facultative anaerobes (2%). Regardless of the origin of the odontogenic infection, the causal bacteria yielded the best results in terms of increased sensitivity and lesser resistance with amoxicillin / clavulanate and amoxicillin, respectively (p<0.05).
There was no difference between the two groups in demography or disease characteristics (p > 0.05) at baseline. Efficacy was evaluated in a total of 96 patients. Both the treatment groups were comparable in response rate at the end of the therapy (p > 0.05). Clinical success rate was 93.6% and 89.8%, respectively for cefotaxime-sulbactam and co-amoxiclav. One patient from the cefotaxime-sulbactam group reported convulsions, which were probably not related to the study medication in the opinion of the investigator. Except for this serious adverse event, both the study medications were safe and well tolerated in the study population.
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Premature birth carries substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Subclinical infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Prophylactic maternal antibiotic therapy might lessen infectious morbidity and delay labour, but could suppress labour without treating underlying infection.
One hundred twenty two patients were assigned randomly into the four groups. Infection developed in a patient in the short-term amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group and in a patient in the long-term penicillin group.
The treatment groups did not differ significantly in terms of demographics, clinical success rate, microbiological cure rate, or adverse effects. Significantly higher drug compliance was observed in the fosfomycin trometamol group than in the other 2 groups (P<0.05).
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An in vitro pharmacodynamic model was used to simulate the in vivo pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin in order to generate time-kill curves for three clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (isolates 2019, 91-183, and 1746). Representative concentrations in serum or lung tissue and the pharmacokinetic parameters of clarithromycin and the 14-hydroxy metabolite, separately and in combination, were simulated for the time-kill studies. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was used as a control drug. The simulation of typical concentrations of the macrolides in serum in time-kill studies resulted in magnitudes of bacterial killing that were less than (for strains 2019 and 91-183, MICs = 4 mg/liter for clarithromycin and 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin) or equal to (for strain 1746, MIC = 1 mg/liter for clarithromycin and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin) those observed in amoxicillin-clavulanic acid studies. When typical concentrations in lung tissue were simulated, total log decreases in bacterial counts were greater than those achieved with typical concentrations in serum and, in the case of strain 1746, exceeded the magnitude observed with the control drug. In each case, the time to 3-log-unit killing was longer for the macrolides than for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Time-kill curve analyses demonstrated the presence of synergy (defined as a 2-log-unit decrease in the CFU per milliliter between the combination and the most active constituent at any time point) for the combination of clarithromycin and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin at simulated concentrations in serum for one strain of H. influenzae (isolate 91-183). Synergism is likely bacterial strain specific, and the presence of synergy may be dependent on the antibiotic concentrations that are tested. Evaluation of the kill curve kinetics in terms of bactericidal rate for the various starting concentrations of clarithromycin did not result in a clear demonstration of either concentration-dependent or concentration-independent bactericidal activity.
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This study was a comparison of topical ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone otic suspension to oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid suspension in children with acute otitis media with otorrhea through tympanostomy tubes.
Assess the supplementary therapeutic benefit provided by fenspiride administered in combination with antibiotics in COPD patients presenting an episode of bronchial infection.
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The aim of this study was to confirm a presumptive qualification of clinical B. fragilis group strains isolated in Płock as ESBL-positive strains and to determine some properties of these strains. Twenty four clinical strains belonging to the B. fragilis group, isolated first of all from surgical patients, were received for testing. Identification of strains was performed in the automatic ATB Expression system (bioMerieux sa, France) using biochemical API 20 A strips. Strains were tested for the production of catalase (ID Color Catalase test, bioMerieux sa) and beta-lactamase (Cefinase, BBL, Becton Dickinson, USA). Susceptibility of strains to four antimicrobial agents: clindamycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and imipenem was determined by Etest (AB Biodisk, Sweden). ESBLs were detected with the use of two disc diffusion methods: the double-disc synergy test (DDST) according to Jarlier et al. and the diagnostic disc (DD) test according to Appleton. Seventeen of examined strains belonged to the species Bacteroides fragilis, three--to B. ovatus/thetaiotaomicron, two--to B. distasonis, one--to B. uniformis and one--to B. stercoris/eggerthii. One strain (B. uniformis) did not produce catalase, whereas all strains produced beta-lactamases. Examined strains were susceptible in vitro to metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and imipenem. One clindamycin-resistant strain was detected (B. fragilis). Occurrence of ESBL-type enzymes was confirmed in 22 strains of following species: B. fragilis (17 strains), B. ovatus/thetaiotaomicron (3), B. distasonis (1) and B. uniformis (1). Clinical strains of the B. fragilis group with a new mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics appeared during last years in Poland. They produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), so they are resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins and monobactams. Monitoring of infections caused by these threatening strains in hospital patients is very important.
The study population comprised of 888 surgical patients who received antibiotic therapy either for prophylaxis or treatment during the period 1st November 1992 and 28th February 1995.
To update the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guideline regarding the diagnosis and management of acute bacterial sinusitis in children and adolescents.