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Amoxicillin/clavulanate is a synthetic penicillin that is currently commonly used, especially for the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In general, it is a well-tolerated oral antibiotic. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can cause adverse effects, mainly cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic and hematologic, in some cases. Presented here is a case report of a 63-year-old male patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis after recent use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 6 wk of prolonged use of the drug, he began to show signs of cholestatic icterus and developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 300 mg/L). Diagnostic investigation was conducted by ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, serum tests for infection history, laboratory screening of autoimmune diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the abdomen with bile duct-NMR and transcutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound. The duration of disease was approximately 4 mo, with complete resolution of symptoms and laboratory changes at the end of that time period. Specific treatment was not instituted, only a combination of anti-emetic (metoclopramide) and cholestyramine for pruritus.
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A total of 150 different poultry samples were first enriched and grown on selective media, and then processed for molecular detection of S. enteritidis by amplification of the spvb gene.
A total of 426 cultures for nonspecific organisms, made at the Bacteriological Laboratory of the Antituberculosis Dispensary, were analyzed. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were most common among the isolated pathogens. Evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity by using the disks showed augmentin, cefuroxime axetil, and ciprofloxacin to be most effective. Streptomycin and rifampicin resistance of pathogens was highest. In patients with tuberculosis, the non-tuberculosis flora showed resistance to the drugs widely used in general practice (ampicillin, carbenicillin, oxacillin, lincomycin, erythromycin). Among macrolides, rovamycin was more effective than erythromycin. It is concluded that when wide-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed, new and potent drugs should be used in a tuberculosis hospital.
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This study shows that AB treatment is associated with a higher occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, indicating that AB treatment in women with rUTIs is potentially dangerous.
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Otitis media is a common infection of childhood. Increasing antibiotic resistance rates among the principal causative pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, are associated with failure of first line agents.
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Undifferentiated acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a large and heterogeneous group of infections not clearly restricted to one specific part of the upper respiratory tract, which last for up to seven days. They are more common in pre-school children in low-income countries and are responsible for 75% of the total amount of prescribed antibiotics in high-income countries. One possible rationale for prescribing antibiotics is the wish to prevent bacterial complications.
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PSF plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute suppurative thyroiditis in children. Streptococcus species are the most common pathogens in acute suppurative thyroiditis. Our results suggest that amoxicillin-clavulanate is the drug of choice for the treatment of this disease.
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In vitro experiments.
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Augmentin, a new orally absorbed broadspectrum antibacterial agent comprising of amoxycillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate, was investigated in the treatment of gonococcal urethritis in Ibadan, Nigeria, where penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) constitute about 80% of the circulating strains of gonococci. Two different formulations of the agent were employed in the study. The first formulation consisting of 3.0 g amoxycillin and 125 mg clavulanic acid, achieved a cure rate of 75% (i.e. eighteen out of twenty-four patients) among PPNG infections, but 100% cure rate among nine patients with non-PPNG infections. The second formulation consisting of 3.0 g amoxycillin and 250 mg clavulanic acid, had a cure rate of 86% (i.e. fifty-seven out of sixty-six patients) among PPNG infections, and 91% (i.e. ten out of eleven patients) among non-PPNG infections. Clavulanic acid appears to potentiate and enhance the activity of amoxycillin against the beta-lactamase produced by the gonococci. Augmentin seems to be a good and acceptable agent for the treatment of gonococcal infections, in this environment and further studies on its efficacy are therefore justified, such as the simultaneous administration of probenecid.
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We prospectively analysed the clinical data from 100 patients with peritonsillar infection from 2008 to 2010. The diagnosis of abscess or peritonsillar cellulitis was primarily based on obtaining pus through fine-needle aspiration.
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antibiotic prescriptions and the development of AAD were recorded on case report forms. We defined AAD as three or more loose stools in a 24-h period occurring within 8 weeks of exposure to an antibiotic.