Telithromycin appears to be a useful option for the empiric treatment of community-acquired RTIs in adults. It may be particularly useful in the outpatient setting in areas with high rates of penicillin- and macrolide-resistant S pneumoniae; it may also be an alternative agent for patients who are allergic to beta-lactams and live in areas with a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant S pneumoniae or for those who have failed to respond to beta-lactam- or macrolide-based therapy.
Standard 2-wk triple drug therapy was the least expensive strategy ($720), and conventional H2 receptor antagonist therapy was the most expensive ($1791). Costs with 2-wk therapy with omeprazole and clarithromycin ($768) were lower than with omeprazole and amoxicillin ($1028).
Polymorphism in MDR1 is associated with variation in the plasma level of a proton pump inhibitor.
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Time to detection (TTD) in automated blood culture systems is delayed for sensitive microorganisms in the presence of antimicrobial substances and has been associated with worse outcomes for sepsis patients on inadequate empirical therapy. While resin addition removes antimicrobial substances to various degrees from blood culture media, media formulations and the blend of resins may influence performance. The BacT/Alert 3D system (bioMérieux) was investigated using the new resin-containing medium types FA Plus (aerobic) and FN Plus (anaerobic). TTD was compared between control and test bottles containing relevant bacteria or Candida albicans, with and without defined concentrations of antimicrobials. Failure of neutralization was defined as a negative blood culture on day 3. In general, growth delay was nonlinear, concentration dependent, bottle type specific, and reciprocally associated with MICs. Substance-specific serum drug concentrations corresponding to a predefined, clinically relevant 3-h delay of TTD were calculated. Where appropriate, a time interval allowing for drug elimination below this critical level was obtained by pharmacokinetic modeling. Clarithromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, linezolid, tigecycline, vancomycin, and fluconazole were neutralized. For ciprofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam, which were only incompletely neutralized in combination with the most sensitive test strains, a maximum waiting time for blood draw of 1 h was determined based on pharmacokinetics. One or more test strains did not grow in bottles containing either amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefepime, cefotaxime, meropenem, or metronidazole, and we thus recommend particular caution in timing of blood draws if patients have been pretreated with these agents.
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We experienced an extremely rare case in which combined antibacterial therapy for a non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection of the parotid gland achieved a favourable outcome in an elderly immunocompetent patient. Although a 79-year-old man, who presented with swelling and fistula formation in the left parotid gland region, initially received combined antituberculous therapy due to a positive result of acid-fast staining, the lesion did not respond to these agents. Thereafter, since the culture examination did not detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis or NTM, we excluded tuberculosis and considered the possibility of an NTM infection caused by a rare mycobacterial species. Therefore, we switched to the clarithromycin-based antibacterial treatment for eight consecutive months without a surgical intervention, resulting in the complete disappearance of the lesion and no evidence of recurrence detected for 4 years. This conservative chemotherapy might be a feasible alternative to a surgical intervention for treatment against NTM infections of the parotid gland.
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During the outbreak, four out of the 10 laboratory staff and five out of 16 family members had a primary complaint of cough. Seven of nine patients were diagnosed as definitive B. pertussis infection using serology and PCR.
A total of 151 patients with persistent Helicobacter pylori infection after two treatments were studied. Patients were considered positive if two of three endoscopic tests were positive. Susceptibility testing was also performed. Patients received a standard dose of proton-pump inhibitors twice daily, levofloxacin 250 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, for 10 days. Endoscopic follow-up was carried out 4-6 weeks after the end of eradication therapy.
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An 18-year-old male with Escobar syndrome developed Mycobacterium avium osteomyelitis after corrective osteotomy. After three surgical interventions the infection reappeared a fourth time. Repeated attempts at microbiological diagnosis of the granulomatous lesions by microscopy and culture for conventional bacteria and Mycobacteria did not reveal any organism. The diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium finally was achieved by polymerase chain reaction. Extensive immunological work-up did not reveal signs of immunodeficiency. The patient was treated successfully by a combined surgical and chemotherapeutic approach consisting of clarithromycin, ethambutol and ciprofloxacin.
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Those patients in the Area who took AB during the periods under study.
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To determine through an economic evaluation study whether it is cost-effective to extend treatment of dyspeptic patients from 7 to 10 days, distinguishing between functional dyspepsia, unexamined dyspepsia, and ulcer disease.
The value of modified triple therapy with amoxicillin and metronidazole is significantly limited by metronidazole resistance. However, metronidazole resistance does not negatively influence treatment outcome in modified triple therapy including clarithromycin. H. pylori resistance to amoxicillin still is not present.
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A total of 228 patients were recruited, and two patients took less than 50% of the drugs. H. pylori eradication rates (intention-to-treat) were 68 out of 82 (83%) with LAM-2 W, 55 out of 71 (78%) with LAM-1 W and 43 out of 75 (57%) with LA-2 W. There were significant differences (P=0. 001) in eradication rates when comparing either LAM-2 W or LAM-1 W with LA-2 W. The eradication rate in patients with metronidazole resistant H. pylori strains were significantly lower than those with metronidazole sensitive strains (P=0.0001). The duodenal ulcer healing rates at week 6 were 85%, 85% and 72% in LAM-2 W, LAM-1 W and LA-2 W, respectively (P=0.065). Side-effects occurred in 13%, 11% and 9% in LAM-2 W, LAM-1 W and LA-2 W, respectively. H. pylori eradication and initial ulcer size were factors affecting duodenal ulcer healing.