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Incision and drainage under LA still remains the gold standard procedure for peritonsillar abscess in our setup.
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A mean difference in AL between groups was available for all papers used in the meta-analysis. A standard deviation (SD) for the difference was used if provided or calculated from the SD or standard error of the mean (SEM) when provided for single measurements. Data were subset by antibiotic employed, type of adjunctive therapy, and disease type. Results were assessed with both fixed-effects and random-effects models.
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A total of 43,493 E. coli isolates from 34,539 unique patients were identified for study inclusion. After stratifying by age, E. coli susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin differed significantly between males and females. However, the magnitude of the differences was less than 10% for all strata except amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility in E. coli isolated from males age 18-64 compared to females of the same age.
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Jaundice associated with co-amoxiclav has been increasingly recognised. We aimed to characterise its clinical and histological features and to investigate linkage with human leucocyte antigen class II haplotypes.
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Acute otitis media (AOM) is diagnosed based on visualization of a full or bulging tympanic membrane with middle ear effusion. The distribution of bacteria causing AOM in North America under the influence of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and antibiotic selection pressure has resulted in a predominance of β-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae followed by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although guidelines continue to endorse amoxicillin as the preferred treatment, amoxicillin/clavulanate in high dosage would be the preferred treatment based on the otopathogen mix currently. Antibiotic prophylaxis has fallen into disfavor as a preventative strategy for AOM recurrences.
There is increasing evidence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistance to the classical triple therapy consisting of a proton-pump inhibitor and clarithromycin with either amoxicillin or metronidazole. This study is aimed at establishing the efficacy and safety of a 14-day regimen to eradicate H. pylori in patients who have failed with the classical triple therapy given for 14 days. One hundred seventy-six patients diagnosed to have H. pylori infection were given triple therapy for 14 days. Fifty-two patients who failed to respond as evident from positive 14C-urea breath test (UBT) done 4-6 weeks after the completion of triple therapy were offered a combination regimen comprised of furazolidone 200 mg b.i.d, co-amoxiclav 1 g b.i.d., colloidal bismuth subcitrate 240 mg b.i.d., and esomeprazole 40 mg b.i.d. for 14 days. The mean age of these patients was 41 +/- 13 years (range 20-67). Thirty-four were males. To document eradication of H. pylori, UBT was repeated 4 weeks after the completion of treatment. On an intention-to-treat analysis, the eradication rate was 81% (42 out of 52) whereas on per-protocol basis, the eradication rate was 82.4% (42 out of 51). In conclusion, this new regimen represents a suitable second-line therapy.
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In group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, 5 days of clarithromycin or amoxicillin/clavulanate treatment had clinical efficacy comparable with that of 10 days of penicillin V treatment; however, amoxicillin/clavulanate and penicillin V were bacteriologically more effective than clarithromycin because of its failure to eradicate the clarithromycin-resistant S. pyogenes isolates. The 5-day clarithromycin regimens are not recommended for treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in areas where in vitro resistance of group A streptococci to clarithromycin is common.
SSI after an open appendectomy remains an important problem. In order to determine a true incidence of SSI, it is necessary to improve the national nosocomial infection surveillance system. The CMP used in the study have showed a trend to significant SSI risk reduction and may be recommended to maximize patient protection. Further large studies are needed to confirm effectiveness of the proposed CMP.
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A high prevalence of fecal colonization with trimethoprim-resistant Escherichia coli was found in diapered children attending day-care centers in Houston, Tex. In the present study, 100 isolates of E. coli resistant to multiple antibiotics, including trimethoprim (100%), sulfisoxazole (100%), streptomycin (94%), and ampicillin (87%), were obtained over a 5-month period from stool samples of diapered children attending four day-care centers and tested for their susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cephalexin, and cephalothin. The MICs for 50 and 90% of strains tested were 16 and 32 micrograms/ml, respectively, for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 4 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively, for cefuroxime, 4 and 64 micrograms/ml, respectively, for cephalexin, and 32 and greater than 64 micrograms/ml, respectively, for cephalothin. Although all three oral beta-lactams tested were generally active at concentrations likely to be achieved in urine, cefuroxime and cephalexin were more potent and are thus more likely to be inhibitory at the concentrations needed for systemic infections.