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To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of K. pneumoniae isolates from Buea, Cameroon.
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We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (29 April 2010).
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All trials which reported clinically relevant outcomes (as opposed to laboratory data) were included.
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One hundred and one adult patients undergoing tonsillectomy for chronic/recurrent tonsillitis completed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium (Timentin) or placebo was administered intravenously at the time of surgery and for 12 hours postoperatively. The patients than received oral amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) therapy or placebo for an additional seven days. Each patient kept a daily log to assess the incidence and severity of postoperative symptoms. Tonsillar core tissue at the time of surgery, as well as tonsillar fossa cultures after 7 days of treatment, were obtained. Those patients who received antibiotics fared consistently better in the immediate postoperative period compared with the placebo group. Specifically, patients in the antibiotic group experienced significantly less mouth odor, were able to tolerate a regular diet sooner, and resumed their normal activities earlier than did patients who received placebo. Patients who received antibiotics experienced fewer days with mouth odor (p = 0.004). In addition, on postoperative days 3 to 5, the antibiotic group was eating a regular diet (p = 0.05) and had returned to their routine activities earlier (p = 0.045) when compared with the placebo group. Perioperative antibiotic therapy was well tolerated and was effective in minimizing symptoms after tonsillectomy.
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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae represent a very small percentage of this kind of pathology in children, and it has scarcely been described in the medical literature. According to previous studies of over 800 urine samples in children under 15 years old, a decrease of 50% (from 0.13% to 0.07%) is estimated in its occurrence over the last two decades. This can be explained by the early detection of UTIs and their early empirical treatment, because this micro-organism shows high sensitivity to antibiotics. Also, the culture media in which this bacterium grows are not included in most current protocols. Here we report a case of a UTI caused by H. parainfluenzae in a 4-year-old boy.
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To assess the prevalence of infectious complications and the protective effect of prophylactic antibiotic treatment after diagnostic office hysteroscopy in asymptomatic, infertile patients with normal results from transvaginal sonography.
The resistance phenotype of the clinical isolate of Escherichia coli 1941 was characterized by high-level resistance to penicillins and to combinations amoxicillin-ticarcillin/clavulanate and ampicillin/sulbactam. This resistance was carried by the conjugative plasmid pEC1941 that encoded a beta-lactamase activity. The purified enzyme focused at pI 5.4 and was strongly inhibited in vitro by clavulanic acid (IC50 = 0.09 microM). Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed identity between the plasmid borne blaTEM gene of E. coli 1941 and the blaTEM-1B gene, except for a single C-to-T substitution at position 32 in the promoter region leading to the overlapping promoters Pa and Pb. No alterations in the expression of outer membrane porins OmpC and OmpF have been detected. These findings show that the resistance of E. coli 1941 to the combinations of beta-lactams with beta-lactamase inhibitors is related to high-level production of TEM-1 enzyme expressed from the strong promoters Pa and Pb.
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A total of 43 stored slurry specimens originating from a fattening house over the period February-April 2002 were analysed, consisting of unseparated (n = 14) slurry, separated solids (n = 16) and separated liquid (n = 13). Specimens were examined for the presence of five bacterial pathogens including Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157 and Yersinia enterocolitica. Selective enrichment and plating methods were employed for detection of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and conventional selective plating techniques for the remaining genera. Antibiogram profiles to 12 antibiotic agents were obtained for all Salmonella isolates obtained.
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Sixty dyspeptic patients (36 male, 24 female; mean age 53 +/- 9 years) with Helicobacter pylori infection never treated before, were enrolled and randomly assigned to two different 7-day triple therapies: (i) (n = 30) amoxicillin 875 mg plus clavulanic acid 125 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. (ACCO); (ii) (n = 30) amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. (ACO). Bacterial eradication was assessed by 13C-urea breath test 4-6 weeks after therapy. Information on gastrointestinal symptoms and antibiotic-related side-effects were recorded using a questionnaire.
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A 29-year-old woman who developed pyometra after ovum retrieval for IVF detected at the time of ultrasound-guided embryo transfer.
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The efficacy of 3-day treatment with a combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation (Clavamox combination dry syrup for pediatric cases) and 10-day treatment with amoxicillin against pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus was compared. Among the patients included in the efficacy evaluation (54 from the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 43 from the amoxicillin group), the clinical response rate on completion of treatment was 98.1 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 92.9 % in the amoxicillin group, thus supporting the equivalent efficacy of these two therapies. The Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus eradication rate at approximately 1-2 weeks after completion/discontinuation of treatment was 65.4 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 85.4 % in the amoxicillin group. Even in cases from which the pathogen continued to be isolated, relapse/recurrence of clinical symptoms was seldom seen. Urinalysis, conducted to assess the presence or absence of acute glomerulonephritis, revealed no abnormality in any patient. These results suggest that 3-day treatment with this clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation is expected to provide a valid means of treating pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus.
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Findings indicated that intravitreal injection of the local anesthetic agent should be considered as a potential complication when performing nerve blocks prior to dental procedures in dogs.