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Sufficient details have not been specified for the epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among surgical site infections (SSIs) in mainland China. This systematic review aimed to estimate proportions of S. aureus and MRSA in SSIs through available published studies.
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The children′s mothers or other family members had cough for more than 10 days in 6 neonates, in which four neonates contacted with 3 or more family members with cough. All the neonates had rhinobyon and slight cough at the beginning of the disease. Five cases presented typical spasmodic cough after 4-7 days of the onset. Five cases displayed cyanosis, four cases occurred apnea, three cases suffered breath holding, and only two cases had fever. Nares flaring and three depression signs were found in the physical examination. No bacteriostatic ring around the erythromycin disks were found for five bacterial isolates. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and clindamycin were all >256 mg/L against the five isolates.
Plasmid pWR105 is a non-self-conjugative plasmid conferring enteroinvasive properties on Shigella sonnei. Loss of this plasmid is accompanied by loss of the invasive phenotype as well as of the form I antigen expression. Thirteen antibiotics belonging to different chemical families were used at subinhibitory concentrations to eliminate pWR105 from S. sonnei and Escherichia coli K12. Rifampicin, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and erythromycin eliminated the plasmid from both strains. Clindamycin eliminated pWR105 from E. coli only. Several other antibiotics gave a low rate of cure (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, nifurzide, tilbroquinol, minocycline). We may expect that these antibiotics would destabilize plasmids from other Shigella species and enteroinvasive E. coli, as these extrachromosomal DNA molecules share a high degree of homology.
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A total of 215 isolates of S. aureus were collected from January 2010 to May 2012 from Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan. PCR was performed for detection of mecA gene on all isolates using specific primers. The frequency of MLSB-resistant isolates was determined using D-test, and then a multiplex PCR was performed for detection of ermA, ermB, and ermC genes.
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Semiautomated rapid broth elution (Autobac Multi-Test System; General Diagnostics, Div. Warner-Lambert Co., Morris Plains, N.J.) and disk diffusion tests were compared with an agar dilution breakpoint method to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 147 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from our hospital. Although the disk diffusion method, in general, correlated well with the agar dilution tests, the overall agreement of the Autobac tests with agar dilution tests was only 79%, with many very major discrepancies occurring with clindamycin (88%), gentamicin (33%), and methicillin (15%). When we used a 10-fold higher inoculum for the Autobac tests, all isolates were shown to be resistant to methicillin, but significant numbers of major and minor discrepancies occurred with chloramphenicol, fusidic acid, and neomycin. The majority of isolates were shown to belong to three biotypes, distinguishable by lactose fermentation, lipolysis, hemolysis, and pigment production. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of one biotype was found to be markedly different from those of the other biotypes and contained a high incidence of clindamycin susceptibility and neomycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin resistance. In contrast, the other two biotypes had a high incidence of clindamycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin resistance and neomycin susceptibility and accounted for most of the very major discrepancies in the clindamycin and aminoglycoside tests. In these methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains, discrepancies possibly may arise from partial expression of methicillin resistance, dissociated or inducible clindamycin resistance, and instability of gentamicin resistance.
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A total of 300 acne subjects entered this multicentre, randomized, investigator-blinded study comparing the efficacy and safety of adapalene gel 0.1% plus clindamycin topical solution 1% versus clindamycin topical solution 1% alone. In the second part of the study (weeks 12-24), completed by 241 subjects, the efficacy and safety of adapalene gel 0.1% alone as a maintenance therapy was investigated.
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More than 300 commencial bacterial species may be found in the oral cavity. Other microorganisms, such as mycoplasms, mycetes, protozoa and viruses are present as well. The virulency of the saprofites and additional contamination by outside microorganisms are factors determining the development of infectious process in the oral tissues. Moreover, streptococci and anaerobes are the most frequent aetiology agents. The antibiotic therapy should comply with the general treatment criteria, on the one hand, and should be specific for these microorganism, on the other. The penicillines (ampicillin, bacampicillin and especially amoxycillin) process pharmacokinetic properties which make them a favorable choice for treatment. These drugs are effective in case of streptococcal infections, with cariogenic processes involvement and dissemination (endocarditis, glomerulonephritis). Other, frequently used drugs are spiramycin, erythromycin, josamycin and myocamycin that are selectively taken up by the oral tissues and present in large quantities in the saliva. The macrolides have a large spectrum of action on microorganisms normally found in the oral cavity. Lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) are active on anaerobes and are drugs of choice for treatment of staphylococcal osteomyelitis. Tetracycline therapy is restricted usually to parodontite cases caused by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Capnocytophaga. In conclusion, the choice of antibacterial therapy should be based on the bacterial aetiology, as well as on the intrinsic drug characteristics (pharmacokinetic, side effects, toxicity etc.).
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Samples were collected from normal skin and nodulocystic and pustular skin lesions of one hundred youngsters (64 girls, 36 boys) among college students in the age range of 18-24 years old. The specimens were cultured individually on blood agar and Muller-Hinton media. The cultures were then incubated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 2 to 7 days. Bacteria were identified and their resistance to common antibiotics was evaluated according to the standard procedures.
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Group B Streptococci (GBS) is responsible for serious infections in newborns such as septicemia and meningitis.
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After internal review board approval (IRB no. 04 12-149), children found to have perforated appendicitis at appendectomy were randomized to either once daily dosing of CM (2 total doses per day) or standard dosing of AGC (11 total doses per day). Perforation was defined as an identifiable hole in the appendix. The operative approach (laparoscopic), length of antibiotic use, and criteria for discharge were standardized for the groups. Based on our retrospective analysis using length of postoperative hospitalization as a primary end point, a sample size of 100 patients was calculated for an alpha of .5 and a power of 0.82.
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Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 10(4) hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01) or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01). In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01) and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01).